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OBJECTIVE To investigate change in mental health after smoking cessation compared with continuing to smoke. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. DATA SOURCES Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from inception to April 2012. Reference lists of(More)
BACKGROUND Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a directive patient-centred style of counselling, designed to help people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change. It was developed as a treatment for alcohol abuse, but may help people to a make a successful attempt to quit smoking. OBJECTIVES To determine whether or not motivational(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), have been shown to be safe and effective interventions for smoking cessation. Higher levels of adherence to these medications increase the likelihood of sustained smoking cessation, but many smokers use them at a lower dose and for less time than is(More)
BACKGROUND Promoting and supporting smoking reduction in smokers with no immediate intention of stopping smoking is controversial given existing fears that this will deter cessation and that reduction itself may not improve health outcomes. DISCUSSION Evidence shows that smokers who reduce the number of daily cigarettes smoked are more likely to attempt(More)
BACKGROUND Most smoking cessation guidelines advise quitting abruptly. However, many quit attempts involve gradual cessation. If gradual cessation is as successful, smokers can be advised to quit either way. OBJECTIVE To examine the success of quitting smoking by gradual compared with abrupt quitting. DESIGN Randomized, controlled noninferiority trial.(More)
Cochrane is a global organization committed to carrying out high-standard systematic reviews and meta-analyses to inform health care and those associated with it, from patients to providers. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) has been reviewing the evidence for interventions to treat and prevent tobacco addiction for 20 years. During this time, the(More)
BACKGROUND The use of nicotine replacement therapy before quitting smoking is called nicotine preloading. Standard smoking cessation protocols suggest commencing nicotine replacement therapy only on the first day of quitting smoking (quit day) aiming to reduce withdrawal symptoms and craving. However, other, more successful smoking cessation(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the smoking status of stop smoking practitioners, the impact of this on their practice, and clients' quit rates. METHODS Smoking cessation practitioners in the UK NHS Stop Smoking Service were asked about their smoking status, client quit rates and practitioner-client interaction, using an online survey. Associations between(More)