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Understanding patterns of connectivity among populations of marine organisms is essential for the development of realistic, spatially explicit models of population dynamics. Two approaches, empirical genetic patterns and oceanographic dispersal modelling, have been used to estimate levels of evolutionary connectivity among marine populations but rarely have(More)
Identifying therapeutic targets for cancer treatment relies on consistent changes within particular types or sub-types of malignancy. The ability to define either consistent changes or sub-types of malignancy is often masked by tumor heterogeneity. To elucidate therapeutic targets in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), the most frequent skin neoplasm(More)
Social protection against the cost of illness is a central policy objective of Universal Health Coverage and the post-2015 Global strategy for Tuberculosis (TB). Understanding the economic burden associated with TB illness and care is key to identifying appropriate interventions towards achieving this target. The aims of this study were to identify points(More)
A proportion of cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) may escape detection by high-resolution genomic technologies, but can be identified by conventional cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Here, we report the detection of a reciprocal translocation t(7;21)(p22;q22) in the marrow of two adults with(More)
1. BACKGROUND In the last two decades, both the production and use of economic evaluations for priority setting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) have steadily increased More than 230 economic evaluations set in LMICs are now published each year (Pitt et al., 2016). The dissemination of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation reference case(More)
Global guidelines for new technologies are based on cost and efficacy data from a limited number of trial locations. Country-level decision makers need to consider whether cost-effectiveness analysis used to inform global guidelines are sufficient for their situation or whether to use models that adjust cost-effectiveness results taking into account(More)
PURPOSE Estimating the incremental costs of scaling-up novel technologies in low-income and middle-income countries is a methodologically challenging and substantial empirical undertaking, in the absence of routine cost data collection. We demonstrate a best practice pragmatic approach to estimate the incremental costs of new technologies in low-income and(More)
1. Long-lived sedentary organisms with a massive morphology are often assumed to utilize a storage effect whereby the persistence of a small group of adults can maintain the population when sexual recruitment fails. However, employing storage effects could prove catastrophic if, under changing climatic conditions, the time period between favourable(More)
BACKGROUND A pragmatic three-tiered approach to monitor the world's largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme was adopted by the South African National Department of Health in 2010. With the rapid expansion of the programme, the limitations of the paper-based register (tier 1) were the catalyst for implementation of the stand-alone electronic(More)
Organisms exposed to environmental stressors respond by rapidly synthesising a suite of highly conserved proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs). Environmental stress can also enhance and/or block memory formation, with long-term memory formation requiring gene activation and protein synthesis. Thermal stress in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can(More)