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Effects of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival directly through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to(More)
(2009) Selecting the correct variance–covariance structure for longitudinal data in ecology : a comparison of the Akaike, quasi-information and deviance information criteria. Abstract Ecological data sets often use clustered sampling, or use repeated sampling in a longitudinal design. Choosing the correct covariance structure is an important step in the(More)
Probability of detection and accuracy of distance estimates in aural avian surveys may be affected by the presence of anthropogenic noise, and this may lead to inaccurate evaluations of the effects of noisy infrastructure on wildlife. We used arrays of speakers broadcasting recordings of grassland bird songs and pure tones to assess the probability of(More)
Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three(More)
Optimization of low voltage power MOSFETs in hard-switching high frequency power converters needs accurate models. This paper deals with a behavioural modelling approach, which employs look-up tables and fitting functions describing the device's characteristics. The required model data can be derived from extensive measurements or alternatively, from finite(More)
Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown.(More)
Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie(More)
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