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Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), and their regulatory cyclin partners, play a central role in eukaryotic cell growth, division, and death. This key role in cell cycle progression, as well as their deregulation in several human cancers, makes them attractive therapeutic targets in oncology. A series of CDK inhibitors was developed using Astex's fragment-based(More)
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes severe centrilobular hepatic necrosis in humans and experimental animals. Here, to explore its mechanism, we administered APAP at subtoxic (150 mg/kg ip) and toxic (500 mg/kg ip) doses to overnight fasted mice. Animals were sacrificed at different time points from 15 min to 4 h postinjection. We assessed liver(More)
This paper describes an application of fragment screening to the aspartyl protease enzyme, beta-secretase (BACE-1), using high throughput X-ray crystallography. Three distinct chemotypes were identified by X-ray crystallography as binding to the catalytic aspartates either via an aminoheterocycle (such as 2-aminoquinoline), a piperidine, or an aliphatic(More)
Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (FabI) catalyzes the final step in each elongation cycle of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. High-throughput screening of the Staphylococcus aureus FabI enzyme identified a novel, weak inhibitor with no detectable antibacterial(More)
Bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) is responsible for catalyzing the final step of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is an attractive target for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Previously we reported the development of FabI inhibitor 4 with narrow spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus via(More)
The aroA gene (Escherichia coli nomenclature) encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase from the gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified, cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme purified to homogeneity. It was shown to catalyze a reversible conversion of shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) and(More)
A genomics-based approach was used to identify the entire gene complement of putative two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTSs) in Streptococcus pneumoniae. A total of 14 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified as putative response regulators, 13 of which were adjacent to genes encoding probable histidine kinases. Both the histidine kinase and(More)
Fragment-based lead discovery has been successfully applied to the aspartyl protease enzyme beta-secretase (BACE-1). Fragment hits that contained an aminopyridine motif binding to the two catalytic aspartic acid residues in the active site of the enzyme were the chemical starting points. Structure-based design approaches have led to identification of low(More)
The majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are characterized by activating mutations of KIT, an HSP90 client protein. Further secondary resistance mutations within KIT limit clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. The dependence of KIT and its mutated forms on HSP90 suggests that HSP90 inhibition might be a valuable(More)
The enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) (ACP) reductase catalyses the last step in each cycle of fatty acid elongation in the type II fatty acid synthase systems. An extensively characterized NADH-dependent reductase, FabI, is widely distributed in bacteria and plants, whereas the enoyl-ACP reductase, FabK, is a distinctly different member of this enzyme group(More)