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This article is a study of the themes and issues concerning the annotation of digital contents, such as textual documents, images, and multimedia documents in general. These digital contents are automatically managed by different kinds of digital library management systems and more generally by different kinds of information management systems. Even though(More)
After being a pilot track in 2005, GeoCLEF advanced to be a regular track within CLEF 2006. The purpose of GeoCLEF is to test and evaluate cross-language geographic information retrieval (GIR): retrieval for topics with a geographic specification. For GeoCLEF 2006, twenty-five search topics were defined by the organizing groups for searching English,(More)
In Information Retrieval (IR), stemming is used to reduce variant word forms to common root. The assumption is that if two words have the same root, then they represent the same concept. Hence stemming permits a IR system to match query and document terms which are related to a same meaning but which can appear in different morphological variants. In this(More)
2014 marks the 15th birthday for CLEF, an evaluation campaign activity which has applied the Cranfield evaluation paradigm to the testing of multilingual and multimodal information access systems in Europe. This paper provides a summary of the motivations which led to the establishment of CLEF, and a description of how it has evolved over the years, the(More)