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Previous functional imaging studies have explored the brain regions activated by tasks requiring 'theory of mind'--the attribution of mental states. Tasks used have been primarily verbal, and it has been unclear to what extent different results have reflected different tasks, scanning techniques, or genuinely distinct regions of activation. Here we report(More)
We present behavioral and anatomical evidence for a multi-component reading system in which different components are differentially weighted depending on culture-specific demands of orthography. Italian orthography is consistent, enabling reliable conversion of graphemes to phonemes to yield correct pronunciation of the word. English orthography is(More)
Two groups of male university students who had been diagnosed as dyslexic when younger, and two groups of control subjects of similar age and IQ to the dyslexics, were scanned whilst reading aloud and during a task where reading was implicit. The dyslexics performed less well than their peers on a range of literacy tasks and were strikingly impaired on(More)
The recognition of dyslexia as a neurodevelopmental disorder has been hampered by the belief that it is not a specific diagnostic entity because it has variable and culture-specific manifestations. In line with this belief, we found that Italian dyslexics, using a shallow orthography which facilitates reading, performed better on reading tasks than did(More)
Evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia have poor phonological processing skills, are less likely to show lateralised activation during the processing of verbal information than children with normal reading ability and tend towards the left of the handedness continuum. The present study investigated this relationship between cerebral(More)
L asymmetry in beta activity in the dyslexic group, again in both tasks. Theta activity did discriminate between the two tasks in the dyslexic group. In the phonological task, task-related frontal theta in the dyslexic group was significantly different from the control group, with the former showing an increase in amplitude and the latter a decrease. In the(More)
Eight dyslexic subjects, impaired on a range of tasks requiring phonological processing, were matched for age and general ability with six control subjects. Participants were scanned using positron emission tomography (PET) during three conditions: repeating real words, repeating pseudowords, and rest. In both groups, speech repetition relative to rest(More)
This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching(More)
Structural brain differences in relation to expertise have been demonstrated in a number of domains including visual perception, spatial navigation, complex motor skills and musical ability. However no studies have assessed the structural differences associated with representational skills in visual art. As training artists are inclined to be a(More)
Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image.(More)