Nicola B. Hamilton

Learn More
In the past 20 years, an extra layer of information processing, in addition to that provided by neurons, has been proposed for the CNS. Neuronally evoked increases of the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes have been suggested to trigger exocytotic release of the 'gliotransmitters' glutamate, ATP and D-serine. These are proposed to modulate(More)
Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate that neuronal activity and the neurotransmitter glutamate evoke(More)
A defining feature of glial cells has been their inability to generate action potentials. We show here that there are two distinct types of morphologically identical oligodendrocyte precursor glial cells (OPCs) in situ in rat CNS white matter. One type expresses voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels, generates action potentials when depolarized and(More)
Because regional blood flow increases in association with the increased metabolic demand generated by localized increases in neural activity, functional imaging researchers often assume that changes in blood flow are an accurate read-out of changes in underlying neural activity. An understanding of the mechanisms that link changes in neural activity to(More)
A single-arm pilot study explored the feasibility of adapting in Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) by telephone to reduce psychological distress and to enhance coping during cancer treatment. Therapy focuses on role transitions, interpersonal conflicts, and grief precipitated by cancer. Breast cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy received weekly(More)
In the gray matter of the brain, astrocytes have been suggested to export lactate (derived from glucose or glycogen) to neurons to power their mitochondria. In the white matter, lactate can support axon function in conditions of energy deprivation, but it is not known whether lactate acts by preserving energy levels in axons or in oligodendrocytes, the(More)
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the postnatal mouse corpus callosum (CC) and motor cortex (Ctx) reportedly generate only oligodendrocytes (OLs), whereas those in the piriform cortex may also generate neurons. OPCs have also been subdivided based on their expression of voltage-gated ion channels, ability to respond to neuronal activity, and(More)
NG2-glia are an abundant population of cells in the adult CNS that make up a novel glial cell type. Here, we have examined calcium signals in NG2-glia identified by expression of the fluorescent protein DsRed under the control of the NG2 promoter in the white matter of the mouse optic nerve. We focused on mice aged postnatal day (P)12-16, after the main(More)
Neurotransmitters released at synapses mediate Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes in CNS grey matter. Here, we show that ATP and glutamate evoke these Ca2+ signals in white matter astrocytes of the mouse optic nerve, a tract that contains neither neuronal cell bodies nor synapses. We further demonstrate that action potentials along white matter axons trigger the(More)
Glutamatergic signaling has been exceptionally well characterized in the brain's gray matter, where it underlies fast information processing, learning and memory, and also generates the neuronal damage that occurs in pathological conditions such as stroke. The role of glutamatergic signaling in the white matter, an area until recently thought to be devoid(More)