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The aim of this study was to characterize Kenyan runners in regard to their oxygen uptake and blood and ammonia responses when running. Untrained Kenyan boys (14.2 +/- 0.2 years) and Scandinavian runners were included for comparison. The studies were performed at altitude (approximately 2.000 m.a.s.l.) and, for several Kenyan and Scandinavian runners, at(More)
The study comprises data on 12 Scandinavian runners who had either trained for two weeks in Kenya (n = 6; approximately 2000 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.)) or in Portugal (n = 6; sea level (s.l.)) and on 13 Kenyan runners (9 junior and 4 senior) living and training at approximately 2000 m.a.s.l. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training(More)
To compare two situations with similar magnitudes of mitochondrial substrate flux but different blood oxygen contents, one-legged training was employed. Ten healthy subjects trained one leg under normobaric conditions and the other under hypobaric conditions. At each session the subjects trained each leg for 30 min. The absolute work intensity was the same(More)
Differences between the effects of training at sea level and at simulated altitude on performance and muscle structural and biochemical properties were investigated in 8 competitive cyclists who trained for 3–4 weeks, 4–5 sessions/week, each session consisting of cycling for 60–90 min continuously and 45–60 min intermittently. Four subjects, the altitude(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the game characteristics and physiological (ie, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual (ie, rating of perceived exertion, RPE) responses during actual tennis competition in professional performers. METHODS Eight trained and internationally ranked (Association of Tennis Professionals rankings) male tennis players were studied(More)
The D allele at the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-insertion/deletion polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk of developing several pathological processes, such as coronary heart disease and ventricular hypertrophy. Individuals with the DD genotype show a significantly increased left-ventricular mass in response to physical training,(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to quantify the intensity of competition during two professional bicycle stage races: the Tour de France (Tour) and Vuelta a España (Vuelta). METHODS The HR responses of 18 world class cyclists were recorded during the races and compared with HR ranges that corresponded to four intensities of exercise that were measured(More)
AIM In order to measure game intensity in female basketball players, 2 teams (Olympic National Team - I -and a team at 1(st) National Division - N) were studied for a total of 12 games (10 official competitions and 2 practice games -P). METHODS Both blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) and mean heart rate (HR) were measured during the games and then(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms by which endurance training produces physiological hypertrophy have been thoroughly investigated but not with young athletes. The aim of our study was to investigate arterial blood pressure exercise responses in young athletes who started heavy training by the age of 11, participating in metabolically different sports (cycling,(More)