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The transcriptional antiterminator RfaH promotes transcription of long operons encoding surface cell components important for the virulence of Escherichiacoli pathogens. In this paper, we show that RfaH enhanced kps expression for the synthesis of group 2 polysialic acid capsule in E. coli K92. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that RfaH(More)
Mitochondria are the main engine that generates ATP through oxidative phosphorylation within the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial respiration is regulated according to the metabolic needs of cells and can be modulated in response to metabolic changes. Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. Here, we identify MCJ/DnaJC15 as a(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a consequence of defects in diverse metabolic pathways that involve hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. Features of these aberrations might determine whether NAFLD progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated whether the diverse defects observed in patients with NAFLD are(More)
Escherichia coli K92 is an opportunistic pathogen bacterium able to produce polysialic acid (PA) capsules when grows at 37°C. PA polysaccharides are cell-associated homopolymers tailored from acid sialic monomers that function as virulence factors in different neuroinvasive diseases caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae. Conversely, when grows at 19°C(More)
N-Acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) is the first committed intermediate in sialic acid metabolism. Thus, the mechanisms that control intracellular ManNAc levels are important regulators of sialic acid production. In prokaryotic organisms, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) 2-epimerase and GlcNAc-6-P 2-epimerase are two enzymes capable of generating ManNAc from(More)
We studied growth temperature as a factor controlling the expression of genes involved in capsular polymers of Escherichia coli K92. These genes are shown to be regulated by growth temperature. Expression levels of genes belonging to the kps cluster, responsible for polysialic acid (PA) biosynthesis, were significantly increased at 37 °C compared with at 19(More)
We have shown previously that Escherichia coli K92 produces two different capsular polymers known as CA (colanic acid) and PA (polysialic acid) in a thermoregulated manner. The complex Rcs phosphorelay is largely related to the regulation of CA synthesis. Through deletion of rscA and rscB genes, we show that the Rcs system is involved in the regulation of(More)
A group of synthetic antimicrobial oligomers, inspired by naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides, were analyzed for the ability to modulate innate immune responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. These synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) specifically reduced cytokine production in response to Staphylococcus aureus and the S. aureus(More)
Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. B. burgdorferi has been shown to bind to different receptors on the surface of phagocytic cells, including the β(2) integrin, complement receptor 3 (CR3). However, whether these(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has(More)