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The relationship between whole-system metabolism estimates based on planktonic and benthic incubations (bare sediments and seagrass, Posidonia oceanica meadows), and CO 2 fluxes across the air-sea interface were examined in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain) during two cruises in March and June 2002. Moreover, planktonic and 5 benthic incubations were(More)
Knowledge of mammalian tooth formation is increasing, through numerous genetic and developmental studies. The prevalence of teeth in fossil remains has led to an intensive description of evolutionary patterns within and among lineages based on tooth morphology. The extent to which developmental processes have influenced tooth morphologies and therefore the(More)
In the Arctic, food limitation is one of the driving factors behind small mammal population fluctuations. Active throughout the year, voles and lemmings (arvicoline rodents) are central prey in arctic food webs. Snow cover, however, makes the estimation of their winter diet challenging. We analyzed the isotopic composition of ever-growing incisors from(More)
Photosynthetic characteristics and the effect of UV radiation and elevated temperature measured were studied in Chlorella sp. isolated from a snow microalgal community at King George Island, Maritime Antarctica through the chlorophyll florescence (rapid light curves and maximum quantum yield, respectively). The environmental context was monitored through(More)
Morphological consistency in metazoans is remarkable given the pervasive occurrence of genetic variation, environmental effects, and developmental noise. Developmental stability, the ability to reduce developmental noise, is a fundamental property of multicellular organisms, yet its genetic bases remains elusive. Imperfect bilateral symmetry, or fluctuating(More)
The aim of this study is to model downward migration of lead from the plow layer of an experimental site located in Versailles (about 15 km southwest of Paris, France). Since 1928, samples have been collected annually from the topsoil of three control plots maintained in bare fallow. Thirty samples from 10 different years were analyzed for their lead and(More)
In this paper we describe a fuzzy logic based approach for providing biologically based motivations to be used in evolutionary mobile robot learning. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy logic is used to motivate a small mobile robot to acquire complex behaviors and to perform environment recognition. This method is implemented and tested in behavior based(More)
In this paper we investigate and develop a real-world reinforcement learning approach to autonomously recharge a humanoid Nao robot [1]. Using a supervised reinforcement learning approach, combined with a Gaussian distributed states activation, we are able to teach the robot to navigate towards a docking station, and thus extend the duration of autonomy of(More)
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a biologically supported learning paradigm, which allows an agent to learn through experience acquired by interaction with its environment. Its potential to learn complex action sequences has been proven for a variety of problems, such as navigation tasks. However, the interactive randomized exploration of the state space,(More)