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Genome-wide gene expression profiling has been extensively used to generate biological hypotheses based on differential expression. Recently, many studies have used microarrays to measure gene expression levels across genetic mapping populations. These gene expression phenotypes have been used for genome-wide association analyses, an analysis referred to as(More)
The liver has a central role in glucose homeostasis, as it has the distinctive ability to produce and consume glucose. On feeding, glucose influx triggers gene expression changes in hepatocytes to suppress endogenous glucose production and convert excess glucose into glycogen or fatty acids to be stored in adipose tissue. This process is controlled by(More)
Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a(More)
Progesterone is synthesized and actively metabolized in the central and peripheral nervous system, into neuroactive steroid metabolites, such as dihydroprogesterone, allopregnanolone and isopregnanolone. Progesterone and/or its metabolites exert a variety of effects acting as physiological regulators of neuronal and glial development and plasticity,(More)
Low-affinity A2B adenosine receptors (A2B ARs), which are expressed in astrocytes, are mainly activated during brain hypoxia and ischaemia, when large amounts of adenosine are released. Cytokines, which are also produced at high levels under these conditions, may regulate receptor responsiveness. In the present study, we detected A2B AR in human astrocytoma(More)
Chromatin modifications are sensitive to environmental and nutritional stimuli. Abnormalities in epigenetic regulation are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes that are often linked with defects in oxidative metabolism. Here, we evaluated the potential of class-specific synthetic inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs),(More)
Neuroactive steroids act in the peripheral nervous system as physiological regulators and as protective agents for acquired or inherited peripheral neuropathy. In recent years, modulation of neuroactive steroids levels has been studied as a potential therapeutic approach to protect peripheral nerves from damage induced by diabetes. Nuclear receptors of the(More)
Neuroactive steroid levels are decreased in the central nervous system (CNS) of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. In agreement, they exert protective effects in this experimental model, counteracting degenerative events occurring in the CNS. Therefore, an interesting therapeutic strategy could be to increase their levels directly in the CNS. In this study(More)
INTRODUCTION SCA38 (MIM 611805) caused by mutations within the ELOVL5 gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids with a high and specific expression in Purkinje cells, has recently been identified. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed at describing the clinical and neuroimaging features, and the natural history of(More)
Cannabinoid receptors hold a core position in the brain and control memory, cognition, movement, and pain sensitivity. sn-2 arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) activates neuronal cannabinoid receptors as a full agonist. The brain may rely on circulating arachidonic acid to synthesize endogenous cannabinoids. This Editorial highlights a study by Martin and coworkers(More)