Nico M. van Straalen

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Microbes are the unseen majority in soil and comprise a large portion of life's genetic diversity. Despite their abundance, the impact of soil microbes on ecosystem processes is still poorly understood. Here we explore the various roles that soil microbes play in terrestrial ecosystems with special emphasis on their contribution to plant productivity and(More)
Risk assessment procedures use toxicity tests in which organisms are subjected to chemicals under otherwise constant and favorable experimental conditions. Because variable and suboptimal environmental conditions are common aspects of natural ecosystems, the hazard of underestimation of risk arises. Therefore, an uncertainty factor is used in the(More)
A new type of fingerprinting technique is presented, based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Rather than two endonucleases as in AFLP, we propose the use of three enzymes, hence the method is called three endonuclease (TE)-AFLP. Genomic DNA is digested and two sets of adapters are selectively ligated onto the restriction fragments in a(More)
In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body(More)
BACKGROUND Collembola (springtails) represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor. METHOD We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella(More)
In this paper we aim at summarizing the current definitions of resilience in systems ecology with particular attention towards microbial systems. The recent advances of biomolecular techniques have provided scientists with new tools to investigate these systems in greater detail and with higher resolution. Therefore existing concepts and hypotheses have(More)
Field-selected metal tolerance in Orchesella cincta is correlated with overexpression of the single copy cadmium (Cd) inducible metallothionein (mt). Previously, we have demonstrated large phenotypic variation in mt gene expression, and a higher frequency of high-expression phenotypes in a tolerant population. Here, we describe midparent-offspring(More)
Standard toxicity tests are performed at one constant, optimal temperature (usually 20 degrees C), while in the field variable and suboptimal temperatures may occur. Lack of knowledge on the interactions between chemicals and temperature hampers the extrapolation of laboratory toxicity data to ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the(More)
Toxic effects of heavy metals on soil microorganisms have been confirmed in a number of laboratory studies. However, most real-field studies do not allow for strong general conclusions due to a range of problems, such as pseudoreplication and confounding factors, which are almost impossible to control for with the most commonly used polluted versus(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common pollutants in soil, have negative effects on soil ecosystems, and are potentially carcinogenic. The Springtail (Collembola) Folsomia candida is often used as an indicator species for soil toxicity. Here we report a toxicogenomic study that translates the ecological effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(More)