Nico M. van Gelder

Learn More
The effects of neuroleptics have been attributed to dopamine (DA) receptor blockade; however, other neurotransmitters, in particular serotonin (5-HT), have also been implicated. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and haloperidol on the distribution of DA and 5-HT transporters, on endogenous DA, 5-HT and their major metabolites, and on(More)
The effects of neuroleptic treatments on dopamine transporters and on dopamine receptors was investigated in the forebrain of adult rats treated for 21 days with either haloperidol, clozapine or saline. The dopamine D1receptors, labeled with [3H]SCH23390, increased in nucleus accumbens, latero-dorsal rostral neostriatum and substantia nigra, after clozapine(More)
Brain contains normally very low levels of free glucose since it is practically all oxidized on entering cells; little of this glucose thus exerts any osmotic pressure intracellularly. Moreover, when glucose is in excess, it is rapidly incorporated into glycogen. This mechanism prevents the potential damaging osmotic effects of nonmetabolized, free glucose.(More)
Hughlings Jackson at the turn of the century defined epilepsy as a disorder originating in a “morbid nutrition” of the neuron. With the advances in modern neurochemistry, it is becoming increasingly clear that a chronic seizure predisposition or a lowering of the brain's discharge threshold can be demarcated by a number of biochemical markers. They include(More)
A postulated zinc-taurine complex, with a zinc affinity intermediate between that for glutamic acid dehydrogenase and the calcium binding protein(s), provides an explanation for a series of seemingly unrelated biochemical and physiological effects of taurine. The proposed complex suggests a central mechanism for the action of taurine, such as a bicarbonate(More)
Very prominent in the large biochemical data bank on epilepsy, is the almost “universal” finding that a familial or environmental predisposition towards epilepsy, as well as the earliest signs preceding other forms of hypersynchronous excitation, coincide with an altered glutamate metabolism. Hence, it has become increasingly apparent that glutamate(More)
Plasma levels of 14 amino acids were determined in 44 probands with 3/sec spike-wave epilepsy, 27 of their first-degree relatives, and 22 controls. Six ratios of metabolically related amino acids were also calculated. Statistically significant differences were found for 7/20 variables when the experimental and control probands were compared, and for 6/20(More)
Epilepsy, trauma and other circumstances leading to hyperexcitable conditions in the CNS tend neurochemically to be associated with excessive stimulated release of glutamic acid and/or a failure of GABA modulated inhibition. Somewhat to a lesser extent, taurine and its homologue homotaurine, have also been shown to antagonize the excitatory actions of(More)
Epilepsy is an ancient disorder which treatment over the centuries has been guided by preconceptions regarding its origin. The major improvements in epilepsy management came following the discovery of the EEG and the development of seizure suppressing agents. These advances in diagnosis and anticonvulsant therapy have further ingrained the conviction that(More)
The binding of tritiated 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl-amino)tetralin, or [3H]8-OH-DPAT, to membranes from rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus could be inhibited by serotonin (5-HT) and buspirone, and by the 5-HT antagonists propranolol, NAN-190, pindolol, pindobind-5-HT1A, WAY100135, spiperone and ritanserin. All competition curves, except for ritanserin, best(More)