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Plant responses to different stresses are highly complex and involve changes at the transcriptome, cellular, and physiological levels. Recent evidence shows that plants respond to multiple stresses differently from how they do to individual stresses, activating a specific programme of gene expression relating to the exact environmental conditions(More)
In field conditions, plants may experience numerous environmental stresses at any one time. Research suggests that the plant response to multiple stresses is different from that for individual stresses, producing nonadditive effects. In particular, the molecular signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact and antagonize(More)
Many eukaryotic green algae possess biophysical carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) that enhance photosynthetic efficiency and thus permit high growth rates at low CO2 concentrations. They are thus an attractive option for improving productivity in higher plants. In this study, the intracellular locations of ten CCM components in the unicellular green(More)
Adenoviral vectors are a widely used means of gene transfer. However, transgene expression after adenoviral administration varies among different carcinoma cell lines. We hypothesized that this variation is attributable, in part, to the presence of cell surface molecules involved in adenoviral infection. To test this, we first assessed adenovirus-mediated(More)
Mutating RNA virus genomes to alter codon pair (CP) frequencies and reduce translation efficiency has been advocated as a method to generate safe, attenuated virus vaccines. However, selection for disfavoured CPs leads to unintended increases in CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies that also attenuate replication. We designed and phenotypically(More)
Most RNA viruses infecting mammals and other vertebrates show profound suppression of CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies. To investigate this functionally, mutants of the picornavirus, echovirus 7 (E7), were constructed with altered CpG and UpA compositions in two 1.1-1.3 Kbase regions. Those with increased frequencies of CpG and UpA showed impaired(More)