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Recently, several cases of mild traumatic brain injury to American professional football players have been reconstructed using instrumented Hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummies ATDs. The translational and rotational acceleration responses of injured and uninjured players' heads have been documented. The acceleration data have been processed according to(More)
OBJECTIVES Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has(More)
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, occurs in many activities, mostly as a result of the head being accelerated. A comprehensive study has been conducted to understand better the mechanics of the impacts associated with concussion in American football. This study involves a sequence of techniques to analyse and reconstruct many different head impact(More)
OBJECTIVE National Football League (NFL) concussions occur at an impact velocity of 9.3 +/- 1.9 m/s (20.8 +/- 4.2 mph) oblique on the facemask, side, and back of the helmet. There is a need for new testing to evaluate helmet performance for impacts causing concussion. This study provides background on new testing methods that form a basis for supplemental(More)
OBJECTIVES There has been growing controversy regarding long term effects of repeated low severity head impacts such as when heading a football. However, there are few scientific data substantiating these concerns in terms of the biomechanical head response to impact. The present study aimed to develop a research methodology to investigate the biomechanical(More)
OBJECTIVE The performance of five newer helmets was compared with the baseline VSR-4 helmet in 10 reconstructed cases of National Football League (NFL) collisions causing concussion. The laboratory reconstructions were conducted to determine changes in concussion risk with newer football helmets. METHODS In 60 laboratory tests, translational and(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to measure the head accelerations induced from upper extremity to head and head to head impact during the game of football and relate this to the risk of mild traumatic brain injury using the Head Impact Power (HIP) index. Furthermore, measurement of upper neck forces and torques will indicate the potential for serious neck(More)
OBJECTIVES Controversy surrounding the long term effects of repeated impacts from heading has raised awareness among the public and the medical community. However, there is little information about the human response to the impacts and what measures can be taken to alter their effect. The objective of the current study was to gain a better understanding of(More)
OBJECTIVES Head impacts from footballs are an essential part of the game but have been implicated in mild and acute neuropsychological impairment. Ball characteristics have been noted in literature to affect the impact response of the head; however, the biomechanics are not well understood. The present study determined whether ball mass, pressure, and(More)
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