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BACKGROUND It is important to understand the nature of depression in non-Western and lower-income countries, but little such research exists. This study aimed to examine the characteristic features of depression in Sri Lanka, and to identify environmental risk factors. METHODS Depression diagnoses, symptoms and impairment were measured using the Composite(More)
AIM The study aims to apply clinical staging to young people who present for mental health care; to describe the demographic features, patterns of psychological symptoms, disability correlates and clinical stages of those young people; and to report longitudinal estimates of progression from less to more severe stages. METHODS The study uses(More)
The role of non-diagnostic features in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests immune system alterations in ASD may be implicated in the severity of behavioral impairment and other developmental outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate if there is a characteristic(More)
BACKGROUND Case-control studies are vulnerable to selection and information biases which may generate misleading findings. AIMS To assess the quality of methodological reporting of case-control studies published in general psychiatric journals. METHOD All the case-control studies published over a 2-year period in the six general psychiatric journals(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Few data exist on the determinants of return to paid work after stroke, yet participation in employment is vital to a person's mental well-being and role in society. This study aimed to determine the frequency and determinants of return to work, in particular the effect of early psychiatric morbidity, in a population-based study of(More)
OBJECTIVE Mental illness is consistently underrecognized in general health care, which may lead to underestimation of its effects on awards for social security payments. The authors investigated empirically the contribution of psychiatric morbidity to the award of disability pensions, in particular those awarded for physical diagnoses. METHOD Using a(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) measures functioning and disability in concordance with the bio-psycho-social model of the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Our objectives were to investigate the independent associations of physical health, depression and(More)
BACKGROUND Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. METHODS We prospectively linked survey data from newly licensed drivers aged 17-24 years to data on(More)
BACKGROUND It is necessary to select a range of consistently identified prognostic factors from exploratory studies to include in multivariate models of confirmatory studies. We illustrate a systematic approach to selecting consistently identified prognostic factors using the example of predictors of remission in newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS Medline(More)
Since the documented observations of Kanner in 1943, there has been great debate about the diagnoses, the sub-types, and the diagnostic threshold that relates to what is now known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reflecting this complicated history, there has been continual refinement from DSM-III with ‘Infantile Autism’ to the current DSM-V diagnosis.(More)