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The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal(More)
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules that are highly expressed during development, where they are involved in processes of pathfinding and guidance. CSPGs are present at lower levels in the mature CNS, but are highly concentrated in perineuronal nets where they play an important role in(More)
A range of luciferase reporter vectors was constructed, incorporating 5'-flanking sequences from the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hKLK2), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoters for expression control. Tissue specificity was evaluated in the PSA-positive line LNCaP and PSA-negative cells from different tissues of origin(More)
BACKGROUND Serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels correlate with disease outcomes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Siltuximab, a chimeric, murine-human mAb against IL-6, was evaluated in a three-part phase I/II study in patients with progressive metastatic RCC. METHODS In part 1, 11 patients received 1, 3, 6, or 12mgkg-¹ at weeks 1, 4 and q2w × 2(More)
A randomised phase III trial of MVAC (methotrexate, vincristine, doxorubicin, cisplatin) vs gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) (G 1000 mg m(-2) days 1, 8, and 15 plus C 70 mg m(-2) day 2, q 4 wks) indicated GC had similar efficacy and lower toxicity (JCO 2000). Significant haematologic toxicities in the GC arm occurred on day 15, necessitating dose adjustments(More)
Tumour hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor related to poor response to radiation, chemotherapy, genetic instability, selection for resistance to apoptosis, and increased risk of invasion and metastasis. Hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) has been studied in various tumour sites and its expression has been correlated with the clinical(More)
We conducted a phase I/II study investigating synchronous chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Early dose escalation results were previously published. We report the long-term toxicity and efficacy results with the optimised regimen. Patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer with(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prognostic significance of Bcl-2 expression on the clinical outcome after radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, and to determine if it is possible to identify a subgroup of patients to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be targeted to improve survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS Immunohistochemical staining for Bcl-2 and p53(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the rationale and design of the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme (BCPP), and to demonstrate the capability of this design. METHODS There is a need to understand the determinants of bladder cancer to help reduce recurrence, progression, morbidity, mortality and related costs. We previously showed that lifestyle factors are important(More)
BACKGROUND Better biomarkers must be found to develop clinically useful urine tests for bladder cancer. Proteomics can be used to identify the proteins released by cancer cell lines and generate candidate markers for developing such tests. METHODS We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins released into culture media by eight bladder cancer cell(More)