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A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures derived from plant and environmental origins are reported to have hormonal activity. The potential for appreciable exposure of humans to such substances prompts the need to develop sensitive screening methods to quantitate and evaluate the risk to the public. Yeast cells transformed with plasmids encoding(More)
Previous work has demonstrated that the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) possess oestrogenic activity, which increases with length of alkyl chain from methylparaben to n-butylparaben and with branching in the alkyl chain from n-butylparaben to isobutylparaben. This study reports on the oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben in a variety of(More)
Parabens are used as preservatives in many thousands of cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products to which the human population is exposed. Although recent reports of the oestrogenic properties of parabens have challenged current concepts of their toxicity in these consumer products, the question remains as to whether any of the parabens can accumulate(More)
OBJECTIVES The physiological response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to fluoroquinolone antibiotics was investigated using proteomic methods. METHODS Proteomes were prepared from strain SL1344 following treatment of broth cultures with ciprofloxacin (0.03 and 0.008 mg/L; 2x and 0.5x MIC) and enrofloxacin (0.03 mg/L) and from a multiple(More)
Gross cystic breast disease is a common benign disease which may be associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. Breast cyst fluid (BCF) contains many steroids, peptide growth factors and proteins. We have now identified interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 in BCF by specific radioimmunoassays. Concentrations of IL-1 were similar in BCF with low or high(More)
The plasma pharmacokinetic characteristics of the chemopreventive isothiocyanate sulforaphane were determined in six human volunteers following single and repeated intake of raw broccoli. Initially, an analytical method utilising LC-MS/MS, capable of determining low levels of sulforaphane in human plasma was developed and validated. The plasma profile of(More)
Alkylphenols are weak oestrogenic environmental contaminants and have been implicated in the disruption of endocrine function in wildlife. The influence of biotransformation, tissue distribution, and elimination on biological activity was investigated in juvenile rainbow trout following a single iv dose of [3H]4-nonylphenol. Distribution and elimination of(More)
An assay, employing microsomes prepared from rat liver and a recombinant cell bioassay (RCBA) expressing the human oestrogen receptor (alpha) linked to a reporter gene, was evaluated for the detection of pro-oestrogens in food using methoxychlor and mestranol as model compounds. Bio-activation of the hop phytoestrogen isoxanthohumol to the potent oestrogen(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine and compare the proteomes of three triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in order to identify proteins involved in triclosan resistance. METHODS The proteomes of three distinct but isogenic triclosan-resistant mutants were determined using two-dimensional liquid(More)
The expression of xenobiotic-metabolising cytochrome P450 proteins in the liver of cattle was determined using substrate probes and immunologically by Western blot analysis. Compared to the rat, cattle displayed much higher coumarin 7-hydroxylase (CYP2A) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1) activity but, in contrast, it exhibited much lower debrisoquine(More)