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Mathematical methods for inferring time to extinction have been widely applied but poorly tested. Optimal linear estimation (also called the 'Weibull' or 'Weibull extreme value' model) infers time to extinction from a temporal distribution of species sightings. Previous studies have suggested optimal linear estimation provides accurate estimates of(More)
Second-order election models are based on several assumptions about individual-level motivations. These can be summarized by a transfer hypothesis: individuals presumably apply their evaluations of national-level phenomena to the EU level when voting in EU elections. In contrast, a suis generis hypothesis stipulates that voters evaluate the EU on its own(More)
The control of goal-directed reaching movements is thought to rely upon egocentric visual information derived from the visuomotor networks of the dorsal visual pathway. However, recent research (Krigolson and Heath, 2004) suggests it is also possible to make allocentric comparisons between a visual background and a target object to facilitate reaching(More)
Twisted-bilayer graphene (tBLG) exhibits van Hove singularities in the density of states that can be tuned by changing the twisting angle θ. A θ-defined tBLG has been produced and characterized with optical reflectivity and resonance Raman scattering. The θ-engineered optical response is shown to be consistent with persistent saddle-point excitons. Separate(More)
BACKGROUND The control of vascular tissue development in plants is influenced by diverse hormonal signals, but their interactions during this process are not well understood. Wild-type sterol profiles are essential for growth, tissue patterning and signalling processes in plant development, and are required for regulated vascular patterning. (More)
We report the electrochemical characterisation of well-defined graphene samples, prepared by mechanical exfoliation. Mechanical exfoliation is the method of choice for high purity graphene samples, despite the inherent complexity of the approach and the small scale of the resultant flakes. However, one important, yet presently unclear area, is the role of(More)
Phospholipid membranes of different functionalities were simultaneously assembled on arrays of graphene surfaces in a parallel manner using multi-pen lipid dip-pen nano-lithography. The graphene patch facilitates and restricts the spreading of lipids within itself, obviating the need to scan the writing probes and reducing writing time. Binding studies(More)
We present a Raman mapping study of monolayer graphene G and 2D bands, after integration on silicon strip-waveguide-based micro-ring resonators (MRRs) to characterize the effects of the graphene transfer processes on its structural and optoelectronic properties. Analysis of the Raman G and 2D peak positions and relative intensities reveal that the graphene(More)