Nick Cammack

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BACKGROUND HIV protease inhibitor (PI) therapy results in the rapid selection of drug resistant viral variants harbouring one or two substitutions in the viral protease. To combat PI resistance development, two approaches have been developed. The first is to increase the level of PI in the plasma of the patient, and the second is to develop novel PI with(More)
Multiple nonnucleoside inhibitor binding sites have been identified within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase, including in the palm and thumb domains. After a single treatment with a thumb site inhibitor (thiophene-2-carboxylic acid NNI-1), resistant HCV replicon variants emerged that contained mutations at residues Leu419, Met423, and Ile482 in the(More)
Specific inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication that target the NS3/4A protease (e.g., VX-950) or the NS5B polymerase (e.g., R1479/R1626, PSI-6130/R7128, NM107/NM283, and HCV-796) have advanced into clinical development. Treatment of patients with VX-950 or HCV-796 rapidly selected for drug-resistant variants after a 14-day monotherapy treatment(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNase H activity is essential for the synthesis of viral DNA by HIV reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT). RNA cleavage by RNase H requires the presence of divalent metal ions, but the role of metal ions in the mechanism of RNA cleavage has not been resolved. We measured HIV RNase H activity associated with HIV-RT protein in the(More)
PSI-6130 (beta-D-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methylcytidine) is a selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication that targets the NS5B polymerase. R7128, the prodrug of PSI-6130, has shown antiviral efficacy in patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1a (GT-1a) and GT-1b. We observed that the compound exhibited potent in vitro activity(More)
The capacity of monoclonal antibodies to protect mice passively against yellow fever (YF) virus infection was investigated. Both neutralizing (54K-specific) and non-neutralizing (54K- and 48K-specific) antibodies protected mice against challenge with the RMP substrain of YF virus. Average survival times of mice inoculated intracerebrally with a standard(More)
OBJECTIVES To characterize the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase intrinsic genetic heterogeneity on the inhibitory activity of nucleoside and non-nucleoside HCV polymerase inhibitors. METHODS The sensitivity of genotype (GT) 1 HCV NS5B clinical isolates from treatment-naive patients to nucleoside and non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors was(More)
In our previous crystallographic studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease-substrate complexes, we described a conserved "envelope" that appears to be important for substrate recognition and the selection of drug-resistant mutations. In this study, the complex of HIV-1 protease with the inhibitor RO1 was determined and comparison with(More)
A panel of four CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing different epitopes on CCR5 was examined in CCR5-mediated cell-cell fusion assay, alone or in combination with a variety of small molecule CCR5 antagonists. Although no antagonism was observed between any of the CCR5 inhibitors, surprisingly potent synergy was observed between CCR5 mAbs and(More)
We describe a novel strategy in which two inhibitors of HIV viral entry were incorporated into a single molecule. This bifunctional fusion inhibitor consists of an antibody blocking the binding of HIV to its co-receptor CCR5, and a covalently linked peptide which blocks envelope mediated virus-cell fusion. This novel bifunctional molecule is highly active(More)