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BACKGROUND Knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. METHODS In this cross-sectional serological survey, we obtained 1403 serum samples taken in 2008(More)
The European sero-epidemiology network (ESEN2) aims to standardise serological surveillance of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in 11 participant countries. In each country, serum banks were collected between 1996 and 2003 and tested for VZV antibodies. Assay results were standardised so that international comparisons could be made. Age-specific forces of(More)
The meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine programme in England has successfully controlled the incidence of serogroup C disease, as a result of high short-term vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, the long-term effectiveness of the vaccine remains unknown. We assessed surveillance data from the 4 years since introduction(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives of the H1N1 2009 serological surveillance project were twofold: to document (1) the prevalence of cross-reactive antibodies to H1N1 2009 by age group in the population of England prior to arrival of the pandemic strain virus in the UK and (2) the age-specific incidence of infection by month as the pandemic progressed by measuring(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom. DESIGN Open label, randomised, parallel group, phase II study. SETTING Five UK centres (Oxford, Southampton, Bristol, Exeter, and(More)
In 2003 the existing 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) programme for high risk groups was extended to include all ≥ 65 year olds in England and Wales, starting with ≥ 80 year olds and moving to 75-79 and 65-74 year olds by 2005. We conducted an ecological study to assess the impact of the extended PPV23 programme on serotype-specific incidence of(More)
The 2011/12 season was characterised by unusually late influenza A (H3N2) activity in the United Kingdom (UK). We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 2011/12 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) in a test-negative case–control study in primary care. Overall VE against confirmed influenza A (H3N2) infection, adjusted for age, surveillance scheme(More)
Molecular studies suggest that the simian polyomavirus SV40 is present in the human population, possibly introduced in contaminated polio vaccine. However, no recent seroepidemiological data exist in England on SV40 or on the two human polyomaviruses, BKV and JCV. A comparative age seroprevalence study was undertaken on 2,435 residual sera from 1991 by(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 in the general populations of eight European countries to better understand recent reported changes in disease epidemiology. METHODS Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, and Slovenia conducted national cross sectional(More)
As part of the introduction and roll-out of a universal childhood live-attenuated influenza vaccination programme, 4–11 year-olds were vaccinated in seven pilot areas in England in the 2013/14 influenza season. This paper presents the uptake and impact of the programme for a range of disease indicators. End-of-season uptake was defined as the number of(More)