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Experiments were performed with intact human red blood cells to determine whether the inhibitory effects of high Cl- concentrations on Cl- exchange are primarily due to interaction at the cytoplasmic or the external surface of the membrane. When internal Cl- was varied from 150 mM to 600 mM Cl- (using the nystatin technique), keeping external Cl- constant(More)
Niflumic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor of chloride exchange, which binds to a site different from the transport or modifier sites. When the internal Cl- concentration is raised, at constant extracellular Cl-, the inhibitory potency of niflumic acid increases. This effect cannot be attributed to changes in membrane potential, but rather it suggests that(More)
Anticholinergic drugs have been assumed to have no effects on schizophrenic symptomatology. Some studies suggest, however, that anticholinergic agents may antagonize the beneficial effect of neuroleptics on positive symptoms and partially ameliorate negative symptoms. Virtually all studies have been conducted in patients receiving concomitant neuroleptic(More)
Based on the implication of increased muscarinic ACh activity in the production of negative symptoms, the association of decreasing cholinergic activity with positive symptoms, and the covariance of positive and negative symptoms in the psychotic phase of schizophrenia, a model of (DA) dopaminergic/(ACh) cholinergic interactions in schizophrenia was(More)
It is generally assumed that anticholinergic drugs have no effects on schizophrenic symptomatology. A few studies, however, indicate that anticholinergic agents aggravate psychotic symptoms and antagonize therapeutic effects of neuroleptics in schizophrenic patients; more recently, some investigators have observed that these agents appear to benefit(More)
In this paper, we introduce a direct manipulation tabletop multi-touch user interface for spatial audio scenes. Although spatial audio rendering exists for several decades now, mass market applications have not been developed and the user interfaces still address a small group of expert users. We implemented an easy-to-use direct manipulation interface for(More)
Substantial changes were made in the organisation of a child health clinic serving an underprivileged population in Nottingham. A community paediatric team approach was adopted, routine medical checks were reduced, and referrals from elsewhere (including parents) were encouraged. The changes resulted in an older and more deprived population of preschool(More)
hat factors determine birth weight and do they have any biological significance for the future health and welfare of the individual? These are important questions for all paediatricians and four groups of experts have been approached to independently give their thoughts on key areas. The aim was for concise pithy comments and opinions, so the length of the(More)
Schizophrenic patients discharged from acute inpatient settings are often unprepared to function outside the hospital, leading to recidivism and frequent rehospitalization. Social skills training programs addressing this need have hitherto only been developed for use in outpatient or long-term inpatient settings. We describe the development of a social(More)