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Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.
A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreak in chickens was reported in the Dominican Republic in 2008. The complete genome of this isolate, chicken/DominicanRepublic(JuanLopez)/499-31/2008 (NDV-DR499-31/08), and the fusion proteins of three other related viruses from the Dominican Republic and Mexico were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Genetically,… (More)
The BACTEC Microbacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system was evaluated to determine how it compares with the BACTEC 460 radiometric system and solid media for recovery of Mycobacterium bovis from tissue samples. A total of 506 bovine lymph node samples were collected from abattoirs in the United States and Mexico between November 2003 and September… (More)
Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is capable of infecting a wide range of avian species leading to a broad range of clinical symptoms. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending on the virus strain and host species. Classification systems have been designed to group isolates based on… (More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from an outbreak in layer chickens in the Dominican Republic in 2008. Infections with this isolate led to a 100% apparent case fatality rate in birds. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the isolate does not belong to any of the previously described NDV genotypes. Similarly, large differences were observed in… (More)
In 2010, H14 influenza A viruses were recovered from clinically normal sea ducks in the United States. These are the first H14 isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and represent the only documented H14 influenza A viruses isolated since the original isolates were recovered from near the Caspian Sea during 1982.
Eurasian (EA)-origin H5N8 clade 126.96.36.199 avian influenza viruses were first detected in North America during December 2014. Subsequent reassortment with North American (AM) low-pathogenic wild-bird-origin avian influenza has generated at least two reassortants, including an EA/AM H5N1 from an apparently healthy wild green-winged teal, suggesting continued… (More)
The current U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-validated real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay designed to detect the matrix gene of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is the primary screening assay used in the United States. It has previously been shown to be unable to consistently detect all members of class I… (More)