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Rat and human very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were fractionated by zonal ultracentrifugation, yielding sharply defined fractions with narrow sedimentation limits. Sedimentation coefficients for the individual fractions were determined at two densities with the analytical ultracentrifuge, and the results were analyzed to yield buoyant densities and(More)
To determine how insulin deficiency leads to hypercholesterolemia, we examined cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and utilization in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats fed a grain-based diet ad libitum. Absorbed dietary cholesterol was determined from measurement of dietary cholesterol intake and previous data for cholesterol fractional absorption. Daily(More)
We examined the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (EC, in liver and small intestine of rats. During the acute phase of insulin deficiency (first day), food intake, plasma cholesterol, and reductase specific activity in liver all decreased. By 3(More)
Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes stop growing, develop high cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in plasma, and have decreased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (EC, in liver and increased activity in small intestine. They also eat more than normal. To determine the(More)
Methods were developed for the assay of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity in microsomes from rat leukocytes. The activity in freshly isolated leukocytes is low compared to rat liver but can be assayed reliably. The patterns of response of leukocyte reductase in the assay to variation in substrate concentration, protein concentration, and(More)
Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes stop growing and start eating more chow. These two events elicit an interacting series of changes in cholesterol dynamics. Hyperphagia increases dietary cholesterol intake and cholesterol synthesis by the small intestine. These increases are balanced by a decrease in cholesterol synthesis in the rest of the body so(More)
We describe a method for estimating the total activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (EC in the small intestine of rats. An homogenate of the whole small intestine is prepared rapidly and assayed directly to maximize the yield of enzyme and to minimize opportunity for uncontrolled change in activity. Fresh homogenate(More)
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) separates rat apolipoprotein B (apoB) into one lower and two higher molecular weight components. Of the latter, peptide I (PI) corresponds to human B-100, while the slightly faster-migrating peptide II (PII) lacks a human counterpart; the smaller species peptide III(More)
The contribution of dietary cholesterol to hypercholesterolemia in diabetic rats fed chow ad libitum was evaluated. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin, and the intake, absorption, and subsequent tissue distribution of dietary cholesterol were measured. Absorption was measured as the difference between [3H]cholesterol intake and fecal 3H-labeled(More)
OBJECTIVE We perform a simple cost estimation of ultrasound guidance for the placement of central venous access, considering the US federal reimbursement for ultrasound guidance of central line placement to the federal reimbursement for treating the complication of pneumothorax. METHODS We utilize national statistics on the number of central lines placed(More)