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Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin beta 1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct(More)
Alternative models of cell mechanics depict the living cell as a simple mechanical continuum, porous filament gel, tensed cortical membrane, or tensegrity network that maintains a stabilizing prestress through incorporation of discrete structural elements that bear compression. Real-time microscopic analysis of cells containing GFP-labeled microtubules and(More)
We have examined functions of the cytoplasmic domain of E-selectin, an inducible endothelial transmembrane protein, especially its ability to associate with the cytoskeleton during leukocyte adhesion. Confocal microscopy of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) visualized clustering of E-selectin molecules(More)
Mechanical properties of living cells are commonly described in terms of the laws of continuum mechanics. The purpose of this report is to consider the implications of an alternative approach that emphasizes the discrete nature of stress bearing elements in the cell and is based on the known structural properties of the cytoskeleton. We have noted(More)
A deletion mutation called fro (fragilitas ossium) in the murine Smpd3 (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3) gene leads to a severe skeletal dysplasia. Smpd3 encodes a neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase2), which cleaves sphingomyelin to generate bioactive lipid metabolites. We examined endochondral ossification in embryonic day 15.5 fro/fro mouse embryos and(More)
The pectoral muscles in birds comprise up to a third of the body weight and provide the principal drive to the wing. Their attachment to the sternum suggests that they could compress the thorax and assist ventilation during flight. Most, but not all, birds have an integer ratio relationship between wingbeat and breathing frequency, but no measurements of(More)
–Graphics Processing Units specifically designed for High Performance Computing applications require a higher reliability than GPUs used for graphic rendering or gaming. Particular attention should be given to GPU memory structures because these components have been shown to be the most vulnerable for various codes. This paper describes a test framework to(More)
Silicon carbide ceramics are widely used in various applications for their high strength and favorable thermal properties. The in-situ formation of epitaxial graphene during densification of silicon carbide powder through spark plasma sintering has been recently reported, resulting in claims of novel electronic applications of graphene-SiC ceramic(More)
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