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Aquatic habitats are rich in polarized patterns that could provide valuable information about the environment to an animal with a visual system sensitive to polarization of light. Both cephalopods and fishes have been shown to behaviourally respond to polarized light cues, suggesting that polarization sensitivity (PS) may play a role in improving target(More)
we presented looming stimuli (expanding circle, simulating a rapidly approaching object) in e-vector difference-only videos (see Supplemental Movie 1 published online with this article), and used the innate deimatic antipredator For animals that can see it, the polarisation of light adds another dimension to vision, analogous to adding colour to a black and(More)
The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are(More)
Some vertebrate species have evolved means of extending their visual sensitivity beyond the range of human vision. One mechanism of enhancing sensitivity to long-wavelength light is to replace the 11-cis retinal chromophore in photopigments with 11-cis 3,4-didehydroretinal. Despite over a century of research on this topic, the enzymatic basis of this(More)
The underlying mechanisms of polarization sensitivity (PS) have long remained elusive. For rhabdomeric photoreceptors, questions remain over the high levels of PS measured experimentally. In ciliary photoreceptors, and specifically cones, little direct evidence supports any type of mechanism. In order to promote a greater interest in these fundamental(More)
Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component(More)
A physiologically realistic model has been constructed for a theoretical study of the mechanisms by which the vertebrate visual system absorbs linearly polarized light. Using a 4 x 4 matrix technique, analytic solutions to Maxwell's equations have been deduced for rod and cone photoreceptors, allowing calculation of the absorbance as a function of(More)
An integrated laser tweezer and microphotometry device has been used to characterize in detail how individual, axially orientated goldfish photoreceptors absorb linearly polarized light. This work demonstrates that the mid-wavelength sensitive members of double cone photoreceptors display axial differential polarization sensitivity. The polarization(More)
Sunlight is attenuated rapidly in the ocean, resulting in little visually useful light reaching deeper than approximately 1000 m in even the clearest water. To maximize sensitivity to the relatively brighter downwelling sunlight, to view the silhouette of animals above them, and to increase the binocular overlap of their eyes, many mesopelagic animals have(More)
Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where(More)