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we presented looming stimuli (expanding circle, simulating a rapidly approaching object) in e-vector difference-only videos (see Supplemental Movie 1 published online with this article), and used the innate deimatic antipredator For animals that can see it, the polarisation of light adds another dimension to vision, analogous to adding colour to a black and(More)
Aquatic habitats are rich in polarized patterns that could provide valuable information about the environment to an animal with a visual system sensitive to polarization of light. Both cephalopods and fishes have been shown to behaviourally respond to polarized light cues, suggesting that polarization sensitivity (PS) may play a role in improving target(More)
Multilayer optical reflectors constructed from 'stacks' of alternating layers of high and low refractive index dielectric materials are present in many animals. For example, stacks of guanine crystals with cytoplasm gaps occur within the skin and scales of fish, and stacks of protein platelets with cytoplasm gaps occur within the iridophores of cephalopods.(More)
The underlying mechanisms of polarization sensitivity (PS) have long remained elusive. For rhabdomeric photoreceptors, questions remain over the high levels of PS measured experimentally. In ciliary photoreceptors, and specifically cones, little direct evidence supports any type of mechanism. In order to promote a greater interest in these fundamental(More)
Some vertebrate species have evolved means of extending their visual sensitivity beyond the range of human vision. One mechanism of enhancing sensitivity to long-wavelength light is to replace the 11-cis retinal chromophore in photopigments with 11-cis 3,4-didehydroretinal. Despite over a century of research on this topic, the enzymatic basis of this(More)
The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are(More)
Darkening of parts of the Greenland ice sheet surface during the summer months leads to reduced albedo and increased melting. Here we show that heavily pigmented, actively photosynthesising microalgae and cyanobacteria are present on the bare ice. We demonstrate the widespread abundance of green algae in the Zygnematophyceae on the ice sheet surface in(More)
Animals make use of a wealth of optical physics to control and manipulate light, for example, in creating reflective animal colouration1–3 and polarized light signals4. Their precise optics often surpass equivalent man-made optical devices in both sophistication and efficiency5. Here, we report a biophysical mechanism that creates a natural(More)
In this paper, we present recent work on bioinspired polarization imaging sensors and their applications in biomedicine. In particular, we focus on three different aspects of these sensors. First, we describe the electro-optical challenges in realizing a bioinspired polarization imager, and in particular, we provide a detailed description of a recent(More)
An integrated laser tweezer and microphotometry device has been used to characterize in detail how individual, axially orientated goldfish photoreceptors absorb linearly polarized light. This work demonstrates that the mid-wavelength sensitive members of double cone photoreceptors display axial differential polarization sensitivity. The polarization(More)