Nicholas S. Johnson

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During the last 30 years, there has been a continued increase in human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe, a disease caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). TBEV is endemic in an area ranging from northern China and Japan, through far-eastern Russia to Europe, and is maintained in cycles involving Ixodid ticks (Ixodes ricinus and(More)
This chapter reviews recent advances in the identification of the structural elements of the permeability transition pore. The discovery that cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the pore proved instrumental. Various approaches indicate that CsA blocks the pore by binding to cyclophilin (CyP)-D. In particular, covalent labelling of CyP-D in situ by a photoactive(More)
Several reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods have been reported for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. These methods invariably involve multiple transfers of nucleic acids between different tubes, with the risk of contamination leading to the production of false-positive results. Here we describe a single, closed-tube, nonnested(More)
In Europe, two bat lyssaviruses referred to as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) types 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6 respectively) which are closely related to classical rabies virus are responsible for an emerging zoonosis. EBLVs are host restricted to bats, and have been known to infect not only their primary hosts but also in rare circumstances, induce(More)
The ability of antibodies elicited against the rabies human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) to neutralise European bat Lyssaviruses (EBLV types-1 and -2), Australian bat Lyssavirus and classical rabies virus (RABV) has been evaluated using modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (mFAVN) assays. Ninety-six percent (48 of 50) of the human(More)
The elimination of rabies from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Western Europe has been achieved by the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife with a range of attenuated rabies virus strains. With the exception of the vaccinia rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine (VRG), all strains were originally derived from a common ancestor; the Street Alabama(More)
Mitochondria establish contact sites between the inner and outer membranes. The contact sites are held together by junctional complexes of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT; inner membrane) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC; outer membrane). The junctional complexes act as multifunctional recruitment centres, binding a range of proteins(More)
The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These(More)
The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but(More)
In Europe and Asia, Ixodid ticks transmit tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus that causes severe encephalitis in humans but appears to show no virulence for livestock and wildlife. In the British Isles, where TBEV is absent, a closely related tick-borne flavivirus, named louping ill virus (LIV), is present. However, unlike TBEV, LIV causes a(More)