Nicholas R. Cozzarelli

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Chromosome segregation and X-chromosome gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans share the component MIX-1, a mitotic protein that also represses X-linked genes during dosage compensation. MIX-1 achieves its dual roles through interactions with different protein partners. To repress gene expression, MIX-1 acts in an X-chromosome complex that resembles the(More)
We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the conformational and thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules with physiological levels of supercoiling. Three parameters determine the properties of DNA in this model: Kuhn statistical length, torsional rigidity and effective double-helix diameter. The chains in the simulation resemble strongly those(More)
DNA is often modelled as an isotropic rod, but its chiral structure suggests the possible importance of anisotropic mechanical properties, including coupling between twisting and stretching degrees of freedom. Simple physical intuition predicts that DNA should unwind under tension, as it is pulled towards a denatured structure. We used rotor bead tracking(More)
The circular chromosome of Escherichia coli is organized into independently supercoiled loops, or topological domains. We investigated the organization and size of these domains in vivo and in vitro. Using the expression of >300 supercoiling-sensitive genes to gauge local chromosomal supercoiling, we quantitatively measured the spread of relaxation from(More)
We investigated the global changes in mRNA abundance in Escherichia coli elicited by various perturbations of tryptophan metabolism. To do so we printed DNA microarrays containing 95% of all annotated E. coli ORFs. We determined the expression profile that is predominantly dictated by the activity of the tryptophan repressor. Only three operons, trp, mtr,(More)
Autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) function as replication origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ARSs contain the 17 bp ARS consensus sequence (ACS), which binds the origin recognition complex. The yeast genome contains more than 10,000 ACS matches, but there are only a few hundred origins, and little flanking sequence similarity has been found. Thus,(More)
The chromosome of Escherichia coli is maintained in a negatively supercoiled state, and supercoiling levels are affected by growth phase and a variety of environmental stimuli. In turn, supercoiling influences local DNA structure and can affect gene expression. We used microarrays representing nearly the entire genome of Escherichia coli MG1655 to examine(More)
Knowledge of the elastic properties of DNA is required to understand the structural dynamics of cellular processes such as replication and transcription. Measurements of force and extension on single molecules of DNA have allowed direct determination of the molecule's mechanical properties, provided rigorous tests of theories of polymer elasticity, revealed(More)
During the random cyclization of long polymer chains, knots of different types are formed. We investigated experimentally the distribution of knot types produced by random cyclization of phage P4 DNA via its long cohesive ends. The simplest knots (trefoils) predominated, but more complex knots were also detected. The fraction of knots greatly diminished(More)
The Gin DNA invertase of bacteriophage Mu carries out processive recombination in which multiple rounds of exchange follow synaptic complex formation. The stereostructure of the knotted products determined by electron microscopy establishes critical features of site synapsis and DNA exchange. Surprisingly, the invertase knots substrates with directly(More)