Nicholas Proudfoot

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We present a molecular dissection of pause site-dependent transcriptional termination for mammalian RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-transcribed genes. We show that nascent transcripts form RNA/DNA hybrid structures (R-loops) behind elongating Pol II and are especially prevalent over G-rich pause sites positioned downstream of gene poly(A) signals. Senataxin, a(More)
Polyadenylation [poly(A)] signals (PAS) are a defining feature of eukaryotic protein-coding genes. The central sequence motif AAUAAA was identified in the mid-1970s and subsequently shown to require flanking, auxiliary elements for both 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA) as well as to promote downstream transcriptional(More)
Inducible genes in yeast retain a "memory" of recent transcriptional activity during periods of short-term repression, allowing them to be reactivated faster when reinduced. This confers a rapid and versatile gene expression response to the environment. We demonstrate that this memory mechanism is associated with gene loop interactions between the promoter(More)
Sen1 of S. cerevisiae is a known component of the NRD complex implicated in transcription termination of nonpolyadenylated as well as some polyadenylated RNA polymerase II transcripts. We now show that Sen1 helicase possesses a wider function by restricting the occurrence of RNA:DNA hybrids that may naturally form during transcription, when nascent RNA(More)
We have identified novel nuclear transcripts in the human beta-globin locus using nuclear run-on analysis in erythroid cell lines and in situ hybridization analysis of erythroid tissue. These transcripts extend across the LCR and intergenic regions but are undetectable in nonerythroid cells. Surprisingly, transient transfection of a beta-globin gene(More)
The pathway from gene activation in the nucleus to mRNA translation and decay at specific locations in the cytoplasm is both streamlined and highly interconnected. This review discusses how pre-mRNA processing, including 5' cap addition, splicing, and polyadenylation, contributes to both the efficiency and fidelity of gene expression. The connections of(More)
Mechanistic analysis of transcriptional initiation and termination by RNA polymerase II (PolII) indicates that some factors are common to both processes. Here we show that two long genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FMP27 and SEN1, exist in a looped conformation, effectively bringing together their promoter and terminator regions. We also show that PolII is(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are generated from long primary (pri-) RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-derived transcripts by two RNase III processing reactions: Drosha cleavage of nuclear pri-miRNAs and Dicer cleavage of cytoplasmic pre-miRNAs. Here we show that Drosha cleavage occurs during transcription acting on both independently transcribed and intron-encoded miRNAs.(More)
The direct association between messenger RNA (mRNA) 3'-end processing and the termination of transcription was established for the CYC1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutation of factors involved in the initial cleavage of the primary transcript at the poly(A) site (RNA14, RNA15, and PCF11) disrupted transcription termination at the 3' end of the(More)