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Brain inflammation is a complex cellular and molecular response to stress, injury or infection of the CNS in attempt to defend against insults, clear dead and damaged neurons and return the CNS to a normal state. Inflammation in the CNS is driven by the activation of resident microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating peripheral macrophages, which release a(More)
CXCL12, a ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4, is well known in mediating neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration during neural development. However, the effects of CXCL12 on human NPC proliferation and its associated signaling pathways remain unclear. The transcription factor, FOXO3a, a downstream target of Akt-1, is critical for cell cycle control and(More)
We identify calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors on human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and present a physiological role in neurogenesis. RNA editing of the GluR2 subunit at the Q/R site is responsible for making most AMPA receptors impermeable to calcium. Because a single-point mutation could(More)
Chondrocytes are mechanosensitive cells that require mechanical stimulation for proper growth and function in in vitro culture systems. Ultrasound (US) has emerged as a technique to deliver mechanical stress; however, the intracellular signaling components of the mechanotransduction pathways that transmit the extracellular mechanical stimulus to gene(More)
Neurogenesis, tied to the proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) is affected during neurodegenerative diseases, but how neurogenesis is affected during HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD) has not been fully addressed. Here we test the hypothesis that HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated brain macrophages affect NPC(More)
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1alpha) and its receptor CXCR4 play important roles in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) by serving as a HIV-1 co-receptor and affecting cell migration, virus-mediated neurotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating SDF-1(More)
The need for tissue-engineered constructs as replacement tissue continues to grow as the average age of the world's population increases. However, additional research is required before the efficient production of laboratory-created tissue can be realized. The multitude of parameters that affect cell growth and proliferation is particularly daunting(More)
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