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The extent to which large duplications and deletions contribute to human genetic variation and diversity is unknown. Here, we show that large-scale copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) (about 100 kilobases and greater) contribute substantially to genomic variation between normal humans. Representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis of 20 individuals(More)
Genomic analysis provides insights into the role of copy number variation in disease, but most methods are not designed to resolve mixed populations of cells. In tumours, where genetic heterogeneity is common, very important information may be lost that would be useful for reconstructing evolutionary history. Here we show that with flow-sorted nuclei, whole(More)
Single-cell genome sequencing methods are challenged by poor physical coverage and high error rates, making it difficult to distinguish real biological variants from technical artifacts. To address this problem, we developed a method called SNES that combines flow-sorting of single G1/0 or G2/M nuclei, time-limited multiple-displacement-amplification, exome(More)
Sequencing studies of breast tumour cohorts have identified many prevalent mutations, but provide limited insight into the genomic diversity within tumours. Here we developed a whole-genome and exome single cell sequencing approach called nuc-seq that uses G2/M nuclei to achieve 91% mean coverage breadth. We applied this method to sequence single normal and(More)
Rapid and sophisticated improvements in molecular analysis have allowed us to sequence whole human genomes as well as cancer genomes, and the findings suggest that we may be approaching the ability to individualize the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This paradigmatic shift in approach will require clinicians and researchers to overcome several(More)
Advances in whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing methods have enabled genomic analyses of single cells, and these techniques are now beginning to be used to detect genomic lesions in individual cancer cells. Previous approaches have been unable to resolve genomic differences in complex mixtures of cells, such as heterogeneous tumors,(More)
Mammalian genomes are densely populated with long duplicated sequences. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of doublets, short duplications between 25 and 100 bp, distinct from previously described repeats. Each doublet is a pair of exact matches, separated by some distance. The distribution of these intermatch distances is strikingly nonrandom. An(More)
The extent of tumor heterogeneity is an emerging theme that researchers are only beginning to understand. How genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity affects tumor evolution and clinical progression is unknown. The precise nature of the environmental factors that influence this heterogeneity is also yet to be characterized. Nature Medicine, Nature(More)