Nicholas Matthew George

Learn More
Homo-oligomerization of Bax (or Bak) has been hypothesized to be responsible for cell death through the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. However, partly due to a lack of structural information on the Bax homo-oligomerization and apoptosis inducing domain(s), this hypothesis has remained difficult to test. In this study, we identified a three-helix(More)
Jak2 is a hormone-receptor-coupled kinase that mediates the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat). The biological relevance of Jak2-Stat signaling in hormone-responsive adult tissues is difficult to investigate since Jak2 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality. We generated Jak2 conditional(More)
The regulation of both mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis is key for maintaining the health of a cell. Bcl-2 family proteins, central in apoptosis regulation, also have roles in the maintenance of the mitochondrial network. Here we report that Bax and Bak participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fusion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, primary mouse(More)
The mammalian pancreas is required for normal metabolism, with defects in this vital organ commonly observed in cancer and diabetes. Development must therefore be tightly controlled in order to produce a pancreas of correct size, cell type composition, and physiologic function. Through negative regulation of Yap-dependent proliferation, the Hippo kinase(More)
The apoptosis gateway protein Bax normally exists in the cytosol as a globular shaped monomer composed of nine alpha-helices. During apoptosis, Bax translocates to the mitochondria, forms homo-oligomers, and subsequently induces mitochondrial damage. The mechanism of Bax mitochondrial translocation remains unclear. Among the nine alpha-helices of Bax,(More)
The BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family are known to mediate mitochondrial dysfunction during apoptosis. However, the identity of the critical BH3-only proteins and the mechanism of their action following treatment by diverse apoptotic stimuli remain to be fully resolved. We therefore used RNAi to screen the entire Bcl-2 family for their involvement in(More)
How most apoptotic stimuli trigger mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be resolved. We screened the entire Bcl-2 network for its involvement in DNA damage-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Although the anti-apoptotic member Bcl-xL served as a major suppressor, apoptosis initiated only when both Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL were eliminated. The pro-apoptotic members(More)
Autophagy, a cellular recycling process responsible for turnover of cytoplasmic contents, is critical for maintenance of health. Defects in this process have been linked to diabetes. Diabetes-associated glucotoxicity/lipotoxicity contribute to impaired β-cell function and have been implicated as contributing factors to this disease. We tested the hypothesis(More)
The mechanism of Bax/Bak-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), a central apoptotic event primarily controlled by the Bcl-2 family proteins, remains not well understood. Here, we express active Bax/Bak in bacteria, the putative origin of mitochondria, and examine their functional similarities to the λ bacteriophage (λ) holin. As(More)
The BH3-only protein Noxa is a critical mediator of apoptosis and functions primarily by sequestering/inactivating the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1. Although Noxa is a highly labile protein, recent studies suggested that it is degraded by the proteasome in a ubiquitylation-independent manner. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism(More)