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Design, methods, and study population of a long-term multidisciplinary investigation of benign and malignant breast disease were reported. This initial report focused on the relation of menstrual, reproductive, and other factors to serum and breast fluid estrogen measures [estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), percent free estrogen, and sex hormone binding(More)
Soy foods have been reported to have protective effects against premenopausal breast cancer in Asian women. No studies have been reported on potential physiological effects of dietary soy consumption on breast gland function. We evaluated the influence of the long-term ingestion of a commercial soy protein isolate on breast secretory activity. We(More)
Biologic and physiologic factors associated with the availability of breast secretions by a nipple aspiration technique were investigated in 606 normal, non-lactating women. Data obtained on race, age, menstrual status, parity, contraceptive pill use, hormone use, and cerumen type indicated that availability of secretions was related to race, age, and(More)
BACKGROUND We previously showed that women with abnormal cytology in breast fluid obtained by nipple aspiration had an increased relative risk (RR) of breast cancer compared with women from whom fluid was not obtained and with women whose fluid had normal cytology. This study extends the follow-up in the original study group (n = 4046) and presents the(More)
ated colon cancer, the 5 mm after iv. injection 10.4 nmol/breast fluid sample with a mea@i of 2.04 ±2.86 for 11 randomly selected specimens. As th4'e are 100 nmol of histidine normally present in the top ag4' used in the Ames test, our values averaged only 2% and n@tmore than I 0% of increased histidine. We found that to incr@asethe number of spontaneous(More)
We investigated estrogen (estrone and estradiol) levels in serum and in nipple aspirates of breast fluid in relation to reproductive and menopausal characteristics in 104 normal women. In general, breast fluid and serum estrogen levels were not correlated and breast fluid estrogen levels were approximately 5 to 45 times higher than serum levels. Serum(More)
We measured levels of cholesterol and its oxidation products, 5,6 alpha- and beta-epoxides and their common hydrolysis product cholestane triol, in breast fluids of women without breast disease, compared these levels to serum cholesterol levels, and explored associations of these breast fluid measurements with known breast cancer risk factors and other(More)
The epidemiology of breast fluid secretion was studied on the basis of nipple aspirates of breast fluid obtained from 3,929 nonlactating women of various racial groups. The results confirmed and extended earlier findings by our group: Variation in the proportion of secretors was related to most breast cancer risk factors, including age, race, age at(More)
The authors previously reported an increased risk of breast cancer in women from the San Francisco Bay Area first enrolled between 1973 and 1980 with proliferative cytologic findings (hyperplasia, moderate hyperplasia, and atypia) compared with women with normal cytologic findings in breast fluids obtained by nipple aspiration and with women from whom(More)