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In this study, we measured the frequency of revertants of a cytopathic strain of the duck hepatitis B virus that bears a single nucleotide substitution in the pre-S envelope protein open reading frame, resulting in the amino acid substitution G133E. Cytopathic virus mixed with known amounts of a genetically marked wild-type virus was injected into(More)
Although much progress has been made in the identification and characterization of adhesins borne by pathogenic bacteria, the molecular details underlying their interaction with host receptors remain largely unknown owing to the lack of appropriate probing techniques. Here we report a method, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) with tips bearing(More)
Silver is widely used as a biocidal agent in ointments and wound dressings. However, it has also been associated with tissue toxicity and impaired healing. In vitro characterization has also revealed that typical loadings of silver employed in ointments and dressings (approximately 100 microg/cm(2)) lead to cytotoxicity. In this paper, we report the results(More)
The spontaneous assembly of phospholipids at planar interfaces between thermotropic liquid crystals and aqueous phases gives rise to patterned orientations of the liquid crystals that reflect the spatial and temporal organization of the phospholipids. Strong and weak specific-binding events involving proteins at these interfaces drive the reorganization of(More)
The competitive binding of a molecule forming a liquid crystal and a targeted analyte to a common molecular receptor presented at a solid surface possessing nanometer-scale topography is used to trigger an easily visualized surface-driven change in the orientation of a micrometer-thick film of liquid crystal. Diffusion of the targeted analyte from(More)
Experimental measurements and a thermodynamic model reveal that nematic elasticity can induce lateral phase separation of amphiphilic molecules assembled at interfaces between thermotropic liquid crystals (LCs) and immiscible aqueous phases. The morphologies of the phase-separated domains of amphiphiles induced by nematic elasticity are shown to be strongly(More)
We describe a simple optical method that employs measurement of the interaction energy of a liquid crystal (LC) with a surface (the so-called anchoring energy) to report proteins captured on surfaces through specific interactions with immobilized binding groups. To define the sensitivity and dynamic range of the response of the LC, we covalently immobilized(More)
We report the design of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) that can be prefabricated on an elastomeric stamp and mechanically transferred onto biomedically-relevant soft materials, including medical-grade silicone elastomers (E'~450-1500 kPa; E'-elastic modulus) and the dermis of cadaver-skin (E'~200-600 kPa). Whereas initial attempts to stamp PEMs formed(More)
Pichia pastoris is a yeast capable of expressing large amounts of some proteins. When expression vectors are introduced into P. pastoris, individual transformants typically express widely varying amounts of protein. Because clones expressing the highest level of protein occur infrequently during the transformation process, finding them can be very(More)
Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus family form highly resistant spores, which in the case of the pathogen B. anthracis act as the agents of infection. The outermost layer, the exosporium, enveloping spores of the B. cereus family as well as a number of Clostridia, plays roles in spore adhesion, dissemination, targeting, and germination control. We have(More)