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Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.
The authors performed a meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839Expand
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Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function
Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from suchExpand
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Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers
Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning inExpand
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Spacing Effects in Learning
To achieve enduring retention, people must usually study information on multiple occasions. How does the timing of study events affect retention? Prior research has examined this issue only in aExpand
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When does feedback facilitate learning of words?
Some researchers have suggested that although feedback may enhance performance during associative learning, it does so at the expense of later retention. To examine this issue, subjects (N = 258)Expand
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Optimizing distributed practice: theoretical analysis and practical implications.
We examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary, facts, and names of visual objects, with test delays up to 6 months. Expand
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Using tests to enhance 8th grade students' retention of U.S. history facts
Laboratory studies show that retention of information can be powerfully enhanced through testing, but evidence for their utility to promote long-term retention of course information is limited. WeExpand
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Spacing Effects in Real-World Classroom Vocabulary Learning
Summary: As a primary goal, educators often strive to maximize the amount of information pupils remember. In the lab, psychologists havefoundefficient memory strategies forretainingschool-relatedExpand
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Using Spacing to Enhance Diverse Forms of Learning: Review of Recent Research and Implications for Instruction
Every day, students and instructors are faced with the decision of when to study information. The timing of study, and how it affects memory retention, has been explored for many years in research onExpand
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The Effect of Overlearning on Long-Term Retention
Once material has been learned to a criterion of one perfect trial, further study within the same session constitutes overlearning. Although overlearning is a popular learning strategy, its effect onExpand
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