Learn More
In this study, a comparative analysis of metal-related neuronal vulnerability was performed in two brainstem nuclei, the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), known targets of the etiological noxae in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. LC and SN pars compacta neurons both degenerate in Parkinson's disease and other Parkinsonisms; however,(More)
Melanin, the pigment in hair, skin, eyes, and feathers, protects external tissue from damage by UV light. In contrast, neuromelanin (NM) is found in deep brain regions, specifically in loci that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Although this distribution suggests a role for NM in Parkinson's disease neurodegeneration, the biosynthesis and function of NM(More)
Neuronal pigments of melanic type were identified in the putamen, cortex, cerebellum, and other major regions of human brain. These pigments consist of granules 30 nm in size, contained in organelles together with lipid droplets, and they accumulate in aging, reaching concentrations as high as 1.5-2.6 microg/mg tissue in major brain regions. These pigments,(More)
Rapid photoinduced electron transfer is demonstrated over a distance of greater than 40 angstroms between metallointercalators that are tethered to the 5' termini of a 15-base pair DNA duplex. An oligomeric assembly was synthesized in which the donor is Ru(phen)2dppz2+ (phen, phenanthroline, and dppz, dipyridophenazine) and the acceptor is Rh(phi)2phen3+(More)
The Human Genome Project has concluded, but its successful completion has increased, rather than decreased, the need for high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The possibility of clinically screening a full genome for an individual's mutations offers tremendous benefits, both for pursuing personalized medicine and for uncovering the genomic(More)
DNA sequencing by synthesis (SBS) on a solid surface during polymerase reaction offers a paradigm to decipher DNA sequences. We report here the construction of such a DNA sequencing system using molecular engineering approaches. In this approach, four nucleotides (A, C, G, T) are modified as reversible terminators by attaching a cleavable fluorophore to the(More)
The bis-retinoid pigments that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells as lipofuscin are associated with inherited and age-related retinal disease. In addition to A2E and related cis isomers, we previously showed that condensation of two molecules of all-trans-retinal leads to the formation of a protonated Schiff base conjugate, all-trans-retinal(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) share several pathological mechanisms. The parallels between amyloid beta (Abeta) in AD and alpha-synuclein in PD have been discussed in several reports. However, studies of the last few years show that Abeta also shares several important characteristics with neuromelanin (NM), whose role in PD is(More)
Cyanine fluorophores exhibit greatly improved photostability when covalently linked to stabilizers, such as cyclooctatetraene (COT), nitrobenzyl alcohol (NBA) or Trolox. However, the mechanism by which photostabilization is mediated has yet to be determined. Here we present spectroscopic evidence that COT, when covalently linked to Cy5, substantially(More)