Nicholas J Polakowski

Learn More
The complex human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) retrovirus encodes several proteins that are unique to the virus within its 3'-end region. Among them, the viral transactivator Tax and posttranscriptional regulator Rex are well characterized, and both positively regulate HTLV-1 viral expression. Less is known about the other regulatory proteins(More)
Activation of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) transcription is established through the formation of protein complexes on the viral promoter that are essentially composed of the cellular basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB (or certain other members of the ATF/CREB family), the(More)
The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that integrates randomly into the T-cell genome. Two long terminal repeats (LTRs) flank the integrated provirus. The upstream and downstream LTRs carry identical promoter sequences. Studies with other retroviruses suggest that the downstream promoter is silent and that RNA polymerases(More)
The human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I)-encoded Tax protein is a potent transcriptional activator that stimulates expression of the integrated provirus. Biochemical studies indicate that Tax, together with cellular transcription factors, interacts with viral cAMP-response element enhancer elements to recruit the pleiotropic coactivators CREB-binding(More)
The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is integrated into the host cell DNA and assembled into nucleosomes. Within the repressive chromatin environment, the virally encoded Tax protein mediates the recruitment of the coactivators CREB-binding protein/p300 to the HTLV-1 promoter, located within the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the provirus. These(More)
The complex retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia. Deregulation of cellular transcription is thought to be an important step for T-cell transformation caused by viral infection. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is one of the viral proteins believed to be involved in this process, as it(More)
Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a fatal malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of virally infected CD4(+) T cells. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is believed to contribute to development and maintenance of ATL. Unlike the(More)
The homologous cellular coactivators p300 and CBP contain intrinsic lysine acetyl transferase (termed HAT) activity. This activity is responsible for acetylation of several sites on the histones as well as modification of transcription factors. In a previous study, we found that HBZ, encoded by the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), binds to(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, a malignancy characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of virally-infected CD4+ T-cells. Hypercalcemia and bone lesions due to osteoclast-mediated bone resorption are frequently associated with more aggressive forms of the disease. The HTLV-1 provirus(More)
UNLABELLED Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that promotes neuronal proliferation, survival, and plasticity. These effects occur through autocrine and paracrine signaling events initiated by interactions between secreted BDNF and its high-affinity receptor, TrkB. A BDNF/TrkB autocrine/paracrine signaling loop has additionally been(More)