Nicholas J. Gustafson

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Striatal spiny projection (SP) neurons control movement initiation by integrating cortical inputs and inhibiting basal ganglia outputs. Central to this control lies a "microcircuit" that consists of a feedback pathway formed by axon collaterals between GABAergic SP neurons and a feedforward pathway from fast spiking (FS) GABAergic interneurons to SP(More)
Over the past 20 y dietary fiber has emerged as a leading dietary factor in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. High fiber intakes are associated with lower serum cholesterol concentrations, lower risk of coronary heart disease, reduced blood pressure, enhanced weight control, better glycemic control, reduced risk of certain forms of cancer,(More)
Diabetes takes an enormous human and monetary toll each year. Current treatment too often revolves around insulin and drug therapy, neglecting diet and exercise. A comprehensive review was undertaken to assess and summarize the effects of dietary fiber on diabetes. Fiber supplement studies with guar, wheat bran, and apple fiber produced mixed results; some(More)
With new diabetes diet guidelines recommending high carbohydrate intake, questions arise regarding acceptable intake of simple sugars. Whereas several short-term studies report flattened glycemic and insulin response to fructose consumption, some also report increased serum triglyceride levels. Few studies examine the effects of long-term fructose(More)
Dried beans lower serum lipid concentrations in healthy and hyperlipidemic subjects. To determine the effects of canned beans on serum lipid concentrations, 24 hyperlipidemic men ate one of three bean diets for 21 d in a metabolic ward. Diets A and B included 227 g canned beans (120 g beans with 107 g tomato sauce) daily, in a single dose for diet A and in(More)
Psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, rich in soluble fiber, significantly lowers serum cholesterol concentrations. To investigate the lipid-lowering effects of a ready-to-eat cereal enriched with psyllium, we studied 44 hypercholesterolemic ambulatory individuals for 7 wk, using a randomized, double-blind, parallel design. After a 1-wk baseline period, subjects(More)
Successful diabetes management demands a high degree of adherence. Adherence to medical prescriptions, particularly special diets, is notoriously poor. A study of 40 individuals with IDDM and NIDDM who were followed an average of 23 months found good or excellent dietary adherence in 70% of subjects; only 5% demonstrated poor adherence. Adherence was(More)
Reinforcement learning (RL) provides an influential characterization of the brain's mechanisms for learning to make advantageous choices. An important problem, though, is how complex tasks can be represented in a way that enables efficient learning. We consider this problem through the lens of spatial navigation, examining how two of the brain's location(More)