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BACKGROUND Repeated studies have shown that high impulsivity, when defined as the tendency to choose small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is more prevalent in drug addicts and alcoholics when compared with nonaddicts. Assessing whether impulsivity precedes and potentially causes addiction disorders is difficult in humans because they all(More)
The Rescorla-Wagner model has been the most influential theory of associative learning to emerge from the study of animal behavior over the last 25 years. Recently, equivalence to this model has become a benchmark in assessing connectionist models, with such equivalence often achieved by incorporating the Widrow-Hoff delta rule. This article presents the(More)
BACKGROUND Impulsivity is genetically correlated with, and precedes, addictive behaviors and alcoholism. If impulsivity or attention is causally related to addiction, certain pharmacological manipulations of impulsivity and/or attention may affect alcohol drinking, and vice versa. The current studies were designed to explore the relationship among(More)
A blocking paradigm with rats was used to evaluate whether different temporal information is encoded in simultaneous rather than forward associations. During Phase 1, the blocking conditioned stimulus (CS) was simultaneously or forward paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). During Phase 2, the pretrained CS occurred in compound with a novel target CS(More)
The relationship between ethanol (EtOH) administration and the endogenous opioid system has been studied for many years and a considerable body of evidence supports the contention that EtOH modulates the production and/or release of endogenous opioid peptides. However, substantially less is known about the converse influence: the effect that opioids have on(More)
Identifying and characterizing brain regions regulating alcohol consumption is beneficial for understanding the mechanisms of alcoholism. To this aim, we first identified brain regions changing in expression of the inducible transcription factor c-Fos in the alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and alcohol-avoiding DBA/2J (D2) mice after ethanol consumption.(More)
Two strains of mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) were allowed to self-administer intravenous (iv) ethanol. These two strains were selected because they differ greatly in their preference for drinking ethanol solutions: B6 mice are preferrers, whereas D2 mice are avoiders of ethanol. Of interest was whether these strains would also differ in(More)
High- and low-alcohol preferring (HAP and LAP) selected lines of mice diverge greatly in free-choice alcohol consumption. This study investigated whether the lines differ in a measure of alcohol reward not dependent on drinking, specifically place conditioning. Mice were subjected to a differential conditioning procedure in which four alcohol-paired CS+(More)
The comparator hypothesis is a response rule stating that responding to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) reflects the associative strength of the CS relative to that of other cues (comparator stimuli) that were present during CS training. Thus, modulation of the associative strength of a CS's comparator stimulus should alter responding to that CS.(More)
The effect of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol on the development of sensitization to ethanol-induced increases in locomotor activity was examined in DBA/2J mice. In Experiment 1, different groups of mice were given saline or ethanol (2 g/kg) immediately before each of four locomotor activity sessions (48-h intervals), and 1 h after pretreatment(More)