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High and low alcohol preference (HAP and LAP, respectively) mice were created by 10 generations of bidirectional selection for differences in two-bottle choice alcohol consumption. The progenitors used for selection were HS/lbg mice, which are a genetically defined, outbred stock. During selection, mice had 24-h, daily access to 10% alcohol (v/v) and water(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated studies have shown that high impulsivity, when defined as the tendency to choose small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is more prevalent in drug addicts and alcoholics when compared with nonaddicts. Assessing whether impulsivity precedes and potentially causes addiction disorders is difficult in humans because they all(More)
The Rescorla-Wagner model has been the most influential theory of associative learning to emerge from the study of animal behavior over the last 25 years. Recently, equivalence to this model has become a benchmark in assessing connectionist models, with such equivalence often achieved by incorporating the Widrow-Hoff delta rule. This article presents the(More)
Identifying and characterizing brain regions regulating alcohol consumption is beneficial for understanding the mechanisms of alcoholism. To this aim, we first identified brain regions changing in expression of the inducible transcription factor c-Fos in the alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and alcohol-avoiding DBA/2J (D2) mice after ethanol consumption.(More)
The relationship between ethanol (EtOH) administration and the endogenous opioid system has been studied for many years and a considerable body of evidence supports the contention that EtOH modulates the production and/or release of endogenous opioid peptides. However, substantially less is known about the converse influence: the effect that opioids have on(More)
Development of procedures yielding substantial blood alcohol concentrations during voluntary access to an alcohol solution in mice is necessary to further characterize genetic and neurobiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol self-administration. Although, in experimental situations, some populations of mice readily drink an alcohol solution, results from(More)
BACKGROUND Impulsivity is genetically correlated with, and precedes, addictive behaviors and alcoholism. If impulsivity or attention is causally related to addiction, certain pharmacological manipulations of impulsivity and/or attention may affect alcohol drinking, and vice versa. The current studies were designed to explore the relationship among(More)
A blocking paradigm with rats was used to evaluate whether different temporal information is encoded in simultaneous rather than forward associations. During Phase 1, the blocking conditioned stimulus (CS) was simultaneously or forward paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). During Phase 2, the pretrained CS occurred in compound with a novel target CS(More)
Much evidence from studies in humans and animals supports the hypothesis that alcohol addiction is a complex disease with both hereditary and environmental influences. Molecular determinants of excessive alcohol consumption are difficult to study in humans. However, several rodent models show a high or low degree of alcohol preference, which provides a(More)
Two strains of mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) were allowed to self-administer intravenous (iv) ethanol. These two strains were selected because they differ greatly in their preference for drinking ethanol solutions: B6 mice are preferrers, whereas D2 mice are avoiders of ethanol. Of interest was whether these strains would also differ in(More)