Nicholas J. Gay

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The alpha- and beta-subunits of membrane-bound ATP synthase complex bind ATP and ADP: beta contributes to catalytic sites, and alpha may be involved in regulation of ATP synthase activity. The sequences of beta-subunits are highly conserved in Escherichia coli and bovine mitochondria. Also alpha and beta are weakly homologous to each other throughout most(More)
The Toll family of class I transmembrane receptors recognizes and responds to diverse structures associated with pathogenic microorganisms. These receptors mediate initial responses in innate immunity and are required for the development of the adaptive immune response. Toll receptor signaling pathways are also implicated in serious autoimmune diseases such(More)
The extracellular protein Spätzle is required for activation of the Toll signaling pathway in the embryonic development and innate immune defense of Drosophila. Spätzle is synthesized as a pro-protein and is processed to a functional form by a serine protease. We show here that the mature form of Spätzle triggers a Toll-dependent immune response after(More)
LPS signals through a membrane bound-complex of the lipid binding protein MD-2 and the receptor TLR4. In this study we identify discrete regions in both MD-2 and TLR4 that are required for signaling by lipid IVa, an LPS derivative that is an agonist in horse but an antagonist in humans. We show that changes in the electrostatic surface potential of both(More)
The Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain is a region found in the cytoplasmic tails of members of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. The domain is essential for signaling and is also found in the adaptor proteins Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like) and MyD88, which function to couple activation of the receptor to downstream signaling(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate responses to pathogen-associated molecules as part of the vertebrate innate immune response to infection. Receptor dimerization is coupled to downstream signal transduction by the recruitment of a post-receptor complex containing the adaptor protein MyD88 and the IRAK protein kinases. In this work, we show that the death(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is produced by Gram-negative bacteria, is a powerful activator of innate immune responses. LPS binds to the proteins Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD2 to activate pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. The TLR4-MD2 receptor complex is crucial for the host recognition of Gram-negative bacterial infection, and pathogens have(More)
TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) is the fourth Toll/IL-1 resistance domain-containing adaptor to be described that participates in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. TRAM functions exclusively in the TLR4 pathway. Here we show by confocal microscopy that TRAM is localized in the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus, where it colocalizes with TLR4.(More)
The cytokine Spätzle is the ligand for Drosophila Toll, the prototype of an important family of membrane receptors that function in embryonic patterning and innate immunity. A dimeric precursor of Spätzle is processed by an endoprotease to produce a form (C-106) that cross-links Toll receptor ectodomains and establishes signaling. Here we show that before(More)
Neurotrophin receptors corresponding to vertebrate Trk, p75(NTR) or Sortilin have not been identified in Drosophila, thus it is unknown how neurotrophism may be implemented in insects. Two Drosophila neurotrophins, DNT1 and DNT2, have nervous system functions, but their receptors are unknown. The Toll receptor superfamily has ancient evolutionary origins(More)