Nicholas J. Bowring

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The detection and identification of metal items and, in particular weapons, of linear size ≥ 10 cm, concealed upon the human body, is demonstrated as being entirely feasible by using a phased array of suitably ultra wide band transceivers. The complex natural resonances and especially the fundamental resonance, are excited by ultra wide band, stepped(More)
The incorporation of decision maker preferences is often neglected in the Evolutionary MultiObjective Optimisation (EMO) literature. The majority of the research in the field and the development of EMO algorithms is primarily focussed on converging to a Pareto optimal approximation close to or along the true Pareto front of synthetic test problems. However,(More)
This paper investigates the use of Late Time Response (LTR) analysis for detecting multiple simulated objects using via Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in concealed object detection. The LTR results from a pair of simulated targets are presented individually and present within the same simulation. The simulation used a plane wave to represent the Ultra(More)
A half-space electromagnetic model of human skin over the band 30-300 GHz was constructed and used to model radiometric emissivity. The model showed that the radiometric emissivity rose from 0.4 to 0.8 over this band, with emission being localized to a layer approximately one millimeter deep in the skin. Simulations of skin with differing water contents(More)
The naked eye is capable of perceiving electromagnetic radiation in a narrow band of frequencies, known as the optical spectrum. Working with low energy radiation outside the optical spectrum presents distinct difficulties, requiring the use of apparatus to measure invisible and intangible electromagnetic radiation. The apparatus, incorporating a Wiimote,(More)
Photomultipliers are fast, sensitive and low noise light detectors which operate across the ultraviolet–optical–near infra red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sensitivity is determined by the composition of the photocathode layer in which incident photons excite photoelectrons and the thickness of this layer. Incident light is partially reflected(More)
The risk of attacks on travelling public has led to changes in security screening at airports. After the shoe bomber in 2001, each passenger must remove shoes, which might contain concealed threats to be x-rayed individually, which is inconvenient to passengers as well as airlines. An alternative approach is an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Microwave Footwear(More)
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