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The aim of this study was to identify the subtle influences of exposure and individual lifestyles on the risk of developing tuberculosis. A retrospective case-control study (with matching by sex, age, postcode and ethnicity) of all tuberculosis cases notified over a 7-yr period in Liverpool, UK, was carried out. Multiple logistic regression showed that,(More)
Between the March and May of 2000, stool specimens were collected from children aged <5 in six pre-school crèches and clinics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-three (25%) of the children had diarrhoeal disease but the other 190 were asymptomatic. When the stool samples were stained and examined for the oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and other(More)
Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ(More)
We report a case-control study of sporadic cryptosporidiosis with genotyping of isolates from case-patients. A postal questionnaire was completed by 427 patients and 427 controls. We obtained genotyping data on isolates from 191 patients; 115 were Cryptosporidium hominis, and 76 were C. parvum. When all cryptosporidiosis cases were analyzed, three variables(More)
An 840-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene was used to identify Cryptosporidium spp. recovered from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected patients from Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. Initial identification was by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining. Confirmation was by nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic(More)
We describe a case of Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult with diarrhea in Kenya. Sequence analysis of an 840-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene locus demonstrated the isolate had 100% nucleotide identity with C. muris recovered from a rock hyrax, 98.8% with a C. muris "calf" isolate, 95.5% with C. serpentis, but only 87.8% with C. parvum(More)
Background: The majority of filarial nematode species are host to Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts, although a few including Acanthocheilonema viteae, Onchocerca flexuosa and Setaria equina have been shown to be free of infection. Comparisons of species with and without symbionts can provide important information on the role of Wolbachia symbiosis in the(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus best known for causing fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. By using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we detected CHIKV in plasma samples of 8 (14%) of 58 children with suspected central nervous system infection in Bellary, India. CHIKV was also detected in the cerebrospinal(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute(More)