Nicholas I. Kennedy

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Liposomes have been prepared by the vesicle extrusion method (VETs) from mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine with covalently linked poly(ethylene glycol) molecular mass 5000 and 2000 (DPPE-PEG 5000 and DPPE-PEG 2000) covering a range of 0-7.5 mole%. The encapsulation of(More)
To determine whether reaming of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction tibial tunnels with a 10-mm-diameter reamer would result in injury to the anterior roots of the medial and lateral menisci in an in vitro model when using a tibial aiming device at two settings (40° and 60°). Three-dimensional footprints of the ACL and the anterior roots of the(More)
BACKGROUND The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is composed of 2 functional bundles and has an essential role in knee function and stability. There is, however, a limited understanding of the role of each individual bundle through the full range of knee flexion. HYPOTHESIS Both bundles provide restraint to posterior tibial translation across a full range(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, no consensus exists for the optimal graft fixation angle for anatomic single-bundle (SB) posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (PCLRs). Additionally, direct graft forces have not been measured. Alternative graft fixation angles and the resultant graft forces should be investigated to optimize the stability of SB PCLRs without(More)
BACKGROUND A more thorough understanding of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) has led to an increase in awareness and treatment of complex PCL injuries. Controversy exists about whether PCL reconstruction (PCLR) using an anatomic single-bundle (aSB) or anatomic double-bundle (aDB) technique is the most effective. HYPOTHESIS An aDB PCLR provides(More)
BACKGROUND Prior studies have suggested that anatomic double-bundle (DB) posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (PCLR) reduces residual laxity compared with the intact state better than single-bundle PCLR. Although the anterolateral bundle (ALB) and posteromedial bundle (PMB) reportedly act codominantly, few studies have compared commonly used graft(More)
BACKGROUND When surgical intervention is required for a grade 3 superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) tear, there is no consensus on the optimal surgical treatment. Anatomic augmented repairs and anatomic reconstructions for treatment of grade 3 sMCL tears have not been biomechanically validated or compared. HYPOTHESIS Anatomic sMCL augmented(More)
BACKGROUND Biomechanical studies have reported that the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) functions as a restraint against excessive tibial internal rotation at higher degrees of knee flexion. PURPOSE To investigate the use of a supine internal rotation (IR) test for the diagnosis of grade III PCL injuries. The hypothesis was that internal rotation would(More)
Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries with an incidence of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in the United States. Retrograde femoral nailing is an increasingly used treatment strategy to manage these injuries, particularly in fractures below stemmed hip prostheses, in supracondylar or distal femur fractures, in fractures in pregnant or obese patients,(More)
Posterolateral knee injuries occur more commonly than in the past. These injuries most commonly occur concurrent with cruciate ligament tears. The main stabilizers of the posterolateral knee are the fibular collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, and the popliteofibular ligament. These static stabilizers function to prevent increased varus, external(More)