Nicholas H. G. Holford

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The seemingly unpredictable response to levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease can be understood as an interaction between several distinct pharmacological effects of levodopa. The most important are a short-duration response with a half-life of minutes to hours and a long-duration response with a half-life of days, superimposed on diurnal motor(More)
Clinicians recognize levodopa has a short-duration response (measured in hr) and a long-duration response (measured in days) in Parkinson's disease. In addition there is a diurnal pattern of motor function with better function in the morning. Previous pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling has quantified only the short-duration response. We have developed(More)
The analgesic activity of the opiate agonists etorphine and sufentanil and the antagonistic effects of diprenorphine and naloxone have been related to the occupancy of 3 classes of opiate binding sites previously defined in vivo in order to establish their pharmacological significance. Sufentanil binds specifically in vivo to the first type of site (site(More)
Opiate receptor sites in the rat brain were defined in vivo by measuring the binding of etorphine, sufentanil, diprenorphine, and naloxone in saturation and cross-competition experiments. The binding data were analyzed simultaneously, using a computerized curve-fitting technique with an extended least-squares nonlinear regression program. Three types of(More)
Population modeling of tumor size dynamics has recently emerged as an important tool in pharmacometric research. A series of new mixed-effects models have been reported recently, and we present herein a synthetic view of models with published mathematical equations aimed at describing the dynamics of tumor size in cancer patients following anticancer drug(More)
The aim of this report is to describe the use of WinBUGS for two datasets that arise from typical population pharmacokinetic studies. The first dataset relates to gentamicin concentration-time data that arose as part of routine clinical care of 55 neonates. The second dataset incorporated data from 96 patients receiving enoxaparin. Both datasets were(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to describe ketamine pharmacodynamics (PD) in children. Adult ketamine concentrations during recovery are reported as 0.74 mg.l(-1) (sd 0.24 mg.l(-1)) with an EC(50) for anesthesia of 2 mg.l(-1) (sd 0.5 mg.l(-1)), but pediatric data are few. METHODS Children presenting for painful procedures in an Emergency Department(More)
The anatomical localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the human cerebellar cortex was studied using quantitative autoradiography following in vitro labelling of cryostat sections with [3H]flunitrazepam ([3H]FNZ), and the pharmacology of these receptors has been characterized by computerized, non-linear least squares regression analysis of [3H]FNZ(More)
The purpose of the study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease studied in 5 trials (10 occasions) over 4 years. Twenty previously untreated Parkinsonian patients were investigated. Each trial consisted of a 2-hr IV infusion of levodopa (1 mg/kg/h) with concomitant oral carbidopa given on two(More)
Bootstrap methods are used in many disciplines to estimate the uncertainty of parameters, including multi-level or linear mixed-effects models. Residual-based bootstrap methods which resample both random effects and residuals are an alternative approach to case bootstrap, which resamples the individuals. Most PKPD applications use the case bootstrap, for(More)