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Three methods for estimating the average level of gene flow in natural population are discussed and compared. The three methods are FST , rare alleles, and maximum likelihood. All three methods yield estimates of the combination of parameters (the number of migrants [Nm] in a demic model or the neighborhood size [4πDσ2 ] in a continuum model) that(More)
Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in mechanisms of speciation—reflected in a spate of conferences, prominent papers, and in reviews such as Howard and Ber-locher (1997) and in Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001, Volume 16, number 7. Of course, the origin of species has been a central issue throughout the history of evolutionary biology, but(More)
The conditional average frequency of rare alleles has been shown in simulations to provide a simple and robust estimator of the number of individuals exchanged between local populations in an island model (Nm). This statistic is defined as the average frequency of an allele in those samples in which the allele is present. Here, we show that the conditional(More)
A general representation of multilocus selection is extended to allow recombination to depend on genotype. The equations simplify if modifier alleles have small effects on recombination. The evolution of such modifiers only depends on how they alter recombination between the selected loci, and does not involve dominance in modifier effects. The net(More)
Gene flow from the center of a species' range can stymie adaptation at the periphery and prevent the range from expanding outward. We study this process using simple models that track both demography and the evolution of a quantitative trait in a population that is continuously distributed in space. Stabilizing selection acts on the trait and favors an(More)
The probability of fixation of a favorable mutation is reduced if selection at other loci causes inherited variation in fitness. A general method for calculating the fixation probability of an allele that can find itself in a variety of genetic backgrounds is applied to find the effect of substitutions, fluctuating polymorphisms, and deleterious mutations(More)
Chromosomal rearrangements can promote reproductive isolation by reducing recombination along a large section of the genome. We model the effects of the genetic barrier to gene flow caused by a chromosomal rearrangement on the rate of accumulation of postzygotic isolation genes in parapatry. We find that, if reproductive isolation is produced by the(More)
Hybridization may influence evolution in a variety of ways. If hybrids are less fit, the geographical range of ecologically divergent populations may be limited, and prezygotic reproductive isolation may be reinforced. If some hybrid genotypes are fitter than one or both parents, at least in some environments, then hybridization could make a positive(More)
The fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata differ extensively in biochemistry, morphology, and behavior. We use a survey of five diagnostic enzyme loci across the hybrid zone near Cracow in Southern Poland to estimate the dispersal rate, selection pressures, and numbers of loci which maintain this zone. The enzyme clines coincide closely with(More)