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Long postmenopausal lifespans distinguish humans from all other primates. This pattern may have evolved with mother-child food sharing, a practice that allowed aging females to enhance their daughters' fertility, thereby increasing selection against senescence. Combined with Charnov's dimensionless assembly rules for mammalian life histories, this(More)
Ketamine induces, in both humans and rodents, behaviours analogous to some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. To utilise pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) techniques that identify changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to determine the temporal and spatial neuronal activation profile of ketamine in the rat brain. To(More)
Reproductive experiences for women in today's affluent Western nations differ from those of women in hunting and gathering societies, who continue the ancestral human pattern. These differences parallel commonly accepted reproductive risk factors for cancers of the breast, endometrium and ovary. Nutritional practices, exercise requirements, and body(More)
Despite the discovery of ion channels that are activated by protons, we still know relatively little about the signaling of acid pain. We used a novel technique, iontophoresis of protons, to investigate acid-induced pain in human volunteers. We found that transdermal iontophoresis of protons consistently caused moderate pain that was dose-dependent. A(More)
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a class of ion channels activated by extracellular protons and are believed to mediate the pain caused by tissue acidosis. Although ASICs have been widely studied, little is known about their regulation by inflammatory mediators. Here, we provide evidence that nitric oxide (NO) potentiates the activity of ASICs.(More)
The assumption that large mammal hunting and scavenging are economically advantageous to hominid foragers is examined in the light of data collected among the Hadza of northern Tanzania. Hadza hunters disregard small prey in favour of larger forms (mean adult mass greater than or equal to 40 kg). Here we report experimental data showing that hunters would(More)
Abstract Rationale and objectives. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) induces panic in humans and dose dependently increases unconditioned escape behaviour in a novel pre-clinical model of extreme anxiety in rats, the unstable elevated exposed plus maze (UEEPM). Numerous studies indicate that the anxiogenic effects of mCPP may be mediated by its action at the(More)
Abstract Rationale and objectives. The unstable elevated exposed plus maze (UEEPM) has been proposed as a novel model of anxiety which elicits unconditioned escape-related behaviour in rats thought to mimic the persistent "fight/flight" state exhibited by patients suffering from extreme anxiety disorders. This study investigated the predictive validity of(More)
Human monogenic pain syndromes have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie normal and pathological pain states. We describe an autosomal-dominant familial episodic pain syndrome characterized by episodes of debilitating upper body pain, triggered by fasting and physical stress. Linkage and haplotype analysis mapped this(More)
Drugs that enhance α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropanoic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission, such as the AMPA receptor potentiator LY404187, may form treatment strategies for disorders of cognition, learning and memory. Pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) uses blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast(More)