Nicholas E. Paul

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Forebrain dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverse many of the behavioral effects of DA antagonists, and A(2A) receptors are co-localized with D(2) receptors on striatal medium spiny neurons. The present work was undertaken to determine if the ability of an A(2A)(More)
Tremor is a cardinal symptom of parkinsonism, occurring early on in the disease course and affecting more than 70% of patients. Parkinsonian resting tremor occurs in a frequency range of 3-7 Hz and can be resistant to available pharmacotherapy. Despite its prevalence, and the significant decrease in quality of life associated with it, the pathophysiology of(More)
Anticholinesterases are the most common treatment for Alzheimer's disease, and, in recent years, a new group of cholinesterase inhibitors (i.e. rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil) has become available. Although these drugs improve cognitive symptoms, they also can induce or exacerbate parkinsonian symptoms, including tremor. The present studies were(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is increasingly being employed as a treatment for parkinsonian symptoms, including tremor. The present studies used tremulous jaw movements, a pharmacological model of tremor in rodents, to investigate the tremorolytic effects of subthalamic DBS in rats. Subthalamic DBS reduced the tremulous jaw(More)
IMPORTANCE To perform and teach septorhinoplasty, one must have a principled understanding of the mechanics of the nasal septum. The thickness of the L-strut and how it changes septal strength have not been adequately quantified, yet calculating septal strength based on changes to thickness and size is vital in maintaining lasting nasal strength and(More)
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