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Contingent valuation (CV) has become one of the most widely used non-market valuation techniques. CV's prominence is due to its flexibility and ability to estimate total value, including passive use value. Its use and the inclusion of passive use value in benefit-cost analyses and environmental litigation are the subject of a contentious debate. This paper(More)
The relationship between income and willingness to pay for collectively provided publicrenvironmental goods is investigated. We show that while the income elasticity of willingness to pay and the ordinary income elasticity of demand are related, knowledge of one is insufficient to determine the magnitude or even the sign of the other. The income elasticity(More)
Bergstrom showed that a necessary condition for a Pareto optimum with non-paternalistic altruism is classification as a selfish Pareto optimum. This paper shows that Bergstrom's result does not generalize to the benefit-cost analysis of generic changes in public goods. There may exist good projects that will be rejected by a selfish-benefit cost test, a(More)
This paper establishes several propositions concerning the importance of context in valuing public goods. It first provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the value of a public good to be independent of context. Utility-constant valuation sequences are considered where public goods are systematically made available or taken away. For the case of(More)
In this research, we adapt and extend previous work on nonparametric bounds for welfare measures. We present a procedure for estimating upper and lower bounds on each consumer's individual willingness to pay for an environmental improvement. The exciting aspect of this work is that these bounds are derived using only observed quantities and prices of visits(More)
We estimate the demand for local news service described by the offerings from newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, and Smartphone. The results show that the representative consumer values diversity in the reporting of news, more coverage of multicultural issues, and more information on community news. About two-thirds of consumers have a distaste(More)