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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. In order to identify miRNAs and to assess their expression patterns, we sequenced over 250 small RNA libraries from 26 different organ systems and cell types of human and rodents that were enriched in(More)
Annotation of prostate cancer genomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Concordant assessment of DNA copy number, mRNA expression, and focused exon resequencing in 218 prostate cancer tumors identified the nuclear receptor coactivator NCOA2 as an oncogene in approximately 11% of tumors. Additionally,(More)
We introduce a distance-based phylogeny reconstruction method called "weighted neighbor joining," or "Weighbor" for short. As in neighbor joining, two taxa are joined in each iteration; however, the Weighbor criterion for choosing a pair of taxa to join takes into account that errors in distance estimates are exponentially larger for longer distances. The(More)
The nonrandom distribution of meiotic recombination influences patterns of inheritance and genome evolution, but chromosomal features governing this distribution are poorly understood. Formation of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate recombination results in the accumulation of Spo11 protein covalently bound to small DNA fragments. By(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) yield both neuronal and glial progeny, but their differentiation potential toward multiple region-specific neuron types remains remarkably poor. In contrast, embryonic stem cell (ESC) progeny readily yield region-specific neuronal fates in response to appropriate developmental signals. Here we demonstrate prospective and clonal(More)
BACKGROUND Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to presentation and clinical outcome. The prognostic value of recently identified somatic mutations has not been systematically evaluated in a phase 3 trial of treatment for AML. METHODS We performed a mutational analysis of 18 genes in 398 patients younger than 60 years of(More)
The understanding, and even the description of protein folding is impeded by the complexity of the process. Much of this complexity can be described and understood by taking a statistical approach to the energetics of protein conformation, that is, to the energy landscape. The statistical energy landscape approach explains when and why unique behaviors,(More)
Soft-tissue sarcomas, which result in approximately 10,700 diagnoses and 3,800 deaths per year in the United States, show remarkable histologic diversity, with more than 50 recognized subtypes. However, knowledge of their genomic alterations is limited. We describe an integrative analysis of DNA sequence, copy number and mRNA expression in 207 samples(More)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors of the intestinal tract that typically occur in adults over the age of 40 years. GISTs in younger patients are rare and not well characterized. The objective was to define the characteristics of GISTs in children and young adults (<30 years old). Clinicopathologic and molecular features,(More)
We analyzed the PI3K-AKT signaling cascade in a cohort of sarcomas and found a marked induction of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) and phosphorylated AKT and a concomitant upregulation of downstream effectors in most leiomyosarcomas. To determine the role of aberrant PI3K-AKT signaling in leiomyosarcoma pathogenesis, we genetically inactivated Pten in(More)