Nicholas D Peterson

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Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common inflammatory disorder with complex etiology that involves both genetic and environmental triggers, including but not limited to defects in bacterial clearance, defective mucosal barrier and persistent dysregulation of the immune response to commensal intestinal bacteria. IBD is characterized by two distinct(More)
BACKGROUND Although many genetic variants are identified in association with Crohn's disease (CD), CARD15, IL23R, and ATG16L1 association with CD have been firmly confirmed in Caucasians of European ancestry. The prevalence of CD is rapidly rising in Brazil, where European ancestry is firmly admixed with natives and Africans, resulting in a heterogeneous(More)
Massey and Parkes (Gut 2007;56:1489–92) recently highlighted the impact of genomewide association (GWA) studies in generating new insights into the aetiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). We share their enthusiasm. However, the mechanisms underlying childhood-onset CD remain unknown. Phenotypic differences among children, the increased risk of CD among family(More)
Bicondylar fractures of the tibia, representing the Schatzker V and VI fractures represent a challenging problem. Any treatment protocol should aim at restoring articular congruity and the metaphyseo-diaphsyeal dissociation (MDD)-both of these are equally important to long-term outcome. Both internal and external fixations have their proponents, and each(More)
AIMS The presentation of traumatic wounds is commonplace in the accident & emergency department. Often, these wounds need referral to specialist care, e.g. trauma & orthopaedic, plastic or maxillofacial surgeons. Documentation and communication of the size of the wound can influence management, e.g. Gustilo & Anderson classification of open fractures.(More)
Patients managed with upper limb cast immobilization often seek advice about driving. There is very little published data to assist in decision making, and advice given varies between healthcare professionals. There are no specific guidelines available from the UK Drivers and Vehicles Licensing Agency, police, or insurance companies. Evidence-based(More)
The Bosworth injury occurs when the distal fibula becomes entrapped posterior to the posterior tibial tubercle, usually as a result of a supination external rotation injury. This uncommon occurrence is a recognized cause of an irreducible ankle dislocation. A pilon fracture is usually a high-energy injury caused by the talus being driven upward into the(More)
The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 415 million people worldwide have diabetes mellitus. This number has more than doubled since 2000 and is projected to affect nearly 642 million people—10% of the global population—by 2040. In the National Health Service (NHS), the cost of treatment for diabetes accounts for 5% of the overall NHS budget,(More)