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Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining(More)
FtsE and FtsX have homology to the ABC transporter superfamily of proteins and appear to be widely conserved among bacteria. Early work implicated FtsEX in cell division in Escherichia coli, but this was subsequently challenged, in part because the division defects in ftsEX mutants are often salt remedial. Strain RG60 has an ftsE::kan null mutation that is(More)
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In cGVHD, alloreactive T cells and germinal center (GC) B cells often participate in GC reactions to produce pathogenic antibodies. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) can inhibit GC reactions, Treg numbers are reduced in cGVHD,(More)
Sophorolipids (SLs) are extra cellular glycolipids produced by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 when grown in the presence of glucose and fatty acids. These compounds have a disaccharide head group connected to a long-chain hydroxyl-fatty acid by a glycosidic bond. To explore structure-activity of modified SLs, a new family of amino acid-SL derivatives was(More)
Previous studies suggest that up-regulation of Ras signaling in neurons promotes gliosis and astrocytoma formation in a cell nonautonomous manner. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated compound mice (LSL Kras G12D/+;CamKII-Cre) that express oncogenic Kras from its endogenous locus in postmitotic neurons(More)
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line antitubercular drug for which the mode of action remains unresolved. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lacks measurable susceptibility to PZA under standard laboratory growth conditions. However, susceptibility to this drug can be induced by cultivation of the bacilli in an acidified growth medium. Previous reports suggested that(More)
Several different preparations of cross-linked hemoglobin (CLHb) are being evaluated for their efficacy and safety as red cell substitutes in a variety of preclinical and clinical settings. Because CLHb is known to sequester nitric oxide (NO) and inhibit NO-mediated processes, we hypothesized that CLHb would have a hemostatic effect by enhancing platelet(More)
Acknowledgments I would like to thank the following people for helping me get as far as I have today. First of all I would like to thank my advisor Mike Roggemann. Not only did you give me this chance to continue my education on the graduate level, but you have helped me at every step along the way. I would also like to thank Dan Hand and John Stryjewski(More)
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line tuberculosis drug that inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via an as yet undefined mechanism. An M. tuberculosis laboratory strain that was auxotrophic for pantothenate was found to be insensitive to PZA and to the active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA). To determine whether this phenotype was strain or condition(More)